java barcode scanner library DISORDERS OF CALCIUM CONCENTRATION in Objective-C

Generator QR Code JIS X 0510 in Objective-C DISORDERS OF CALCIUM CONCENTRATION

DISORDERS OF CALCIUM CONCENTRATION
Encode QR-Code In Objective-C
Using Barcode encoder for iPhone Control to generate, create QR Code image in iPhone applications.
Bar Code Printer In Objective-C
Using Barcode generation for iPhone Control to generate, create bar code image in iPhone applications.
The normal total plasma (or serum) calcium concentration is 9 103 mg/dL It is ionized calcium (normal: 47 53 mg/ dL) that is physiologically active and is necessary for muscle contraction and nerve function Calcium-sensing receptor, a transmembrane protein with the special function of detecting extracellular calcium ion concentrations, has been identified in parathyroid cells and in the kidney Some diseases (eg, familial hypocalcemia and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia) associated with disturbed calcium metabolism are due to functional defects of this protein (Table 21 5)
Encoding QR-Code In C#
Using Barcode maker for .NET Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
QR Code JIS X 0510 Encoder In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR Code ISO/IEC18004 image in ASP.NET applications.
HYPOCALCEMIA
QR-Code Printer In VS .NET
Using Barcode drawer for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR image in VS .NET applications.
Creating QR Code 2d Barcode In VB.NET
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in VS .NET applications.
ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS
Code 3 Of 9 Printer In Objective-C
Using Barcode generation for iPhone Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 39 image in iPhone applications.
Generate UPC Code In Objective-C
Using Barcode generator for iPhone Control to generate, create GS1 - 12 image in iPhone applications.
Often mistaken as a neurologic disorder
Painting GTIN - 13 In Objective-C
Using Barcode creator for iPhone Control to generate, create UPC - 13 image in iPhone applications.
Barcode Creation In Objective-C
Using Barcode creation for iPhone Control to generate, create bar code image in iPhone applications.
Fluid & Electrolyte Disorders
Painting DataMatrix In Objective-C
Using Barcode creator for iPhone Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in iPhone applications.
EAN / UCC - 13 Printer In Objective-C
Using Barcode drawer for iPhone Control to generate, create GS1-128 image in iPhone applications.
Check for decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, or magnesium depletion If the ionized calcium level is normal despite a low total serum calcium, calcium metabolism is usually normal
Painting EAN-8 Supplement 5 Add-On In Objective-C
Using Barcode maker for iPhone Control to generate, create EAN 8 image in iPhone applications.
UCC - 12 Recognizer In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode decoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
CMDT 2008
Code 3/9 Maker In Objective-C
Using Barcode drawer for iPad Control to generate, create Code 3/9 image in iPad applications.
Generating Code 128A In C#
Using Barcode maker for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 128C image in VS .NET applications.
Clinical Findings
Universal Product Code Version A Creator In Java
Using Barcode maker for BIRT Control to generate, create UCC - 12 image in BIRT applications.
UPC-A Supplement 5 Recognizer In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
A Symptoms and Signs
UPC - 13 Generation In None
Using Barcode maker for Excel Control to generate, create EAN-13 Supplement 5 image in Microsoft Excel applications.
Decoding Code-128 In VB.NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
Hypocalcemia increases excitation of nerve and muscle cells, primarily affecting the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems Extensive spasm of skeletal muscle causes cramps and tetany Laryngospasm with stridor can obstruct the airway Convulsions can occur as well as paresthesias of lips and extremities and abdominal pain Chvostek s sign (contraction of the facial muscle in response to tapping the facial nerve anterior to the ear) and Trousseau s sign (carpal spasm occurring after occlusion of the brachial artery with a blood pressure cuff for 3 minutes) are usually readily elicited Prolongation of the QT interval (due to lengthened ST segment) predisposes to the development of ventricular arrhythmias In chronic hypoparathyroidism, cataracts and calcification of basal ganglia of the brain may appear (see 26)
General Considerations
Development of true hypocalcemia (decreased ionized calcium) implies insufficient action of PTH or active vitamin D The most common cause of low total serum calcium is hypoalbuminemia; correction of serum calcium concentration is needed to accurately reflect the ionized calcium concentration When serum albumin concentration is lower than 4 g/dL, serum Ca2+ concentration is depressed in a ratio of 08 1 mg of Ca2+ to 1 g of albumin Thus, Corrected calcium2+ (mg/dL) = Ca (mg/dL) + 08 ~ 10 (4 albumin [g/dL])
Important causes of hypocalcemia are listed in Table 21 8 The most common cause of hypocalcemia is the advanced stages of CKD, in which decreased production of active vitamin D3 (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3) and hyperphosphatemia both play a role (see 22) Some cases of primary hypoparathyroidism are due to mutation of calcium-sensing receptor in which inappropriate suppression of PTH release leads to hypocalcemia (see 26) Magnesium depletion reduces both PTH release and tissue responsiveness to PTH, causing hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia in pancreatitis is also a marker for severe disease Elderly hospitalized patients with low ionized serum calcium and hypophosphatemia, with or without an elevated parathyroid level, are likely deficient in vitamin D
B Laboratory Findings
Serum calcium concentration is low (< 9 mg/dL) In true hypocalcemia, the ionized serum calcium concentration is also low (< 47 mg/dL) Serum phosphate is usually elevated in hypoparathyroidism or in advanced stages of CKD, whereas it is suppressed in early stages of CKD or vitamin D deficiency Serum magnesium concentration is commonly low In respiratory alkalosis, total serum calcium is normal but ionized calcium is low The ECG shows a prolonged QT interval
Treatment1
A Severe, Symptomatic Hypocalcemia
In the presence of tetany, arrhythmias, or seizures, calcium gluconate 10% (10 20 mL) administered intravenously over 10 15 minutes is indicated Because of the short duration of action, calcium infusion is usually required Ten to 15 milligrams of calcium per kilogram body weight, or six to eight 10-mL vials of 10% calcium gluconate (558 744 mg of calcium), is added to 1 L of D5W and infused over 4 6 hours By monitoring the serum calcium level frequently (every 4 6 hours), the infusion rate is adjusted to maintain the serum calcium level at 7 85 mg/dL
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.