Basic Science of the Epidermis in .NET framework

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CHAPTER 1 Basic Science of the Epidermis
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Leslie Baumann, MD Sogol Saghari, MD
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The skin is composed of three primary layers: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue Each layer possesses specific characteristics and functions Although research regarding skin layers continues, much is already known about the structure of each component New discoveries about these components have already led to prenatal diagnoses of many inherited diseases and to improved therapies In the future, study of these components will likely lead to an enhanced understanding of skin aging and the effects of topical products on the biologic function of the skin The epidermis is the most superficial layer of the skin It is very important from a cosmetic standpoint, because it is this layer that gives the skin its texture and moisture, and contributes to skin color If the surface of the epidermis is dry or rough, the skin appears aged Knowledge of the basic structure of the epidermis best enables a practitioner to improve the appearance of patients skin develop1 In other words, an acidic type and a basic type are always expressed together and they form a keratin filament together Keratinocytes are born at the base of the epidermis at the dermal epidermal junction (DEJ) They are produced by stem cells, which are also called basal cells because they reside at the base, basal layer, of the epidermis When the stem cells divide, they create daughter cells, which slowly migrate to the top of the epidermis This process of daughter cells maturing and moving to the top is called keratinization As these cells progress through the epidermis and mature, they develop different characteristics The layers of the epidermis are named for these characteristic traits For example, as mentioned, the first layer is the basal layer because it is located at the base of the epidermis Basal cells are cuboidal in shape The next layer is referred to as the spinous layer because the cells in this layer have prominent, spiny attachments called desmosomes Desmosomes are complex structures composed of adhesion molecules and other proteins and are integral in cell adhesion and cell transport The next layer is the granular layer, named so because these cells contain visible keratohyaline granules The last, outermost layer is the stratum corneum (SC), a condensed mass of cells that have lost their nuclei and granules (Figs 1-1 and Fig 1-2) The SC is covered by a protein material called the cell envelope, which aids in providing a barrier to water loss and absorption of unwanted materials As keratinocytes migrate through the layers of the epidermis, their contents and functions change according to, or depending on, the specific epidermal layer in which they are moving Although the functions of the keratinocyte have not been completely elucidated, many of them are understood It is known
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Desquamating cell Stratum corneum Keratohyaline granule Granular layer Spinous layer Desmosome Basal layer DERMIS
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Keratohyaline granules Desmosomes Stratum corneum Granular layer Spinous layer Basal layer Dermis
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FIGURE 1-2 Histopathology of the epidermis demonstrating the four layers (Image courtesy of George Ioannides, MD)
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CHAPTER 1 BASIC SCIENCE OF THE EPIDERMIS
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that keratinocyte activity, such as the release of cytokines, can be affected by topical products administered to the skin Keratinocytes and their components at each level of the epidermis starting at the basal layer and proceeding to the superficial layers of the epidermis are described below
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Keratinocyte Function
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THE BASAL LAYER (STRATUM BASALE) Basal cells join with other basal and the overlying spinous cells via desmosomes, thus forming the basement membrane These basal keratinocytes contain keratins 5 and 14, mutations in which result in an inherited disease called epidermolysis bullosa simplex Keratins 5 and 14 are presumed to establish a cytoskeleton that permits flexibility of the cells This flexibility allows cells to proceed out of the basal layer and migrate superficially, thus undergoing the keratinization process Basal cells are responsible for maintaining the epidermis by continually renewing the cell population Of the basal layer, 10% of cells are stem cells, 50% are amplifying cells, and 40% are postmitotic cells Normally, stem cells are slowly dividing cells, but under certain conditions such as wound healing or exposure to growth factors, they divide faster They give rise to transient amplifying cells Transient amplifying cells are responsible for most of the cell division in the basal layer and produce postmitotic cells, which undergo terminal differentiation and move superficially to become suprabasal cells that continue their upward migration to become granular cells and ultimately part of the SC (Fig 1-3) THE SPINOUS LAYER (STRATUM SPINOSUM) Keratins 1 and 10 are first seen in this layer of suprabasal keratinocytes These keratins form a more rigid cytoskeleton
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