Melanin and Melanosome Distribution in Visual Studio .NET

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Melanin and Melanosome Distribution
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As described previously, it is well established that differences in pigmentation are caused by the size and distribution of melanosomes within the keratinocytes2 Darker-skinned subjects have large, singly dispersed melanosomes while lighter-skinned subjects have small grouped melanosomes within keratinocytes Subsequent research confirmed and expanded on the role of melanosomes in skin color These studies demonstrated that melanosome grouping correlates with the degree of pigmentation in white, black, and Asian subjects 69,70 Darker-skinned black subjects had large, singly dispersed melanosomes while lighter-skinned black subjects had both large, singly distributed melanosomes and small grouped melanosomes Similarly, darkskinned white subjects had singly dispersed melanosomes on sun-exposed skin, while light-skinned white subjects with minimal sun exposure had grouped melanosomes Melanosome grouping was also correlated with sun exposure Asian forearm skin primarily had singly distributed melanosomes while unexposed abdominal skin had grouped melanosomes69,70 Further research has determined that the ability of a melanosome to form aggregates is determined by its size Research suggests that melanosomes greater than 035 m cannot form groups69,70 Basal cell layer melanosomes and total melanin content also correlate with the degree of pigmentation Darkly pigmented skin has increased melanin as measured by cell culture71 Darkly pigmented skin also has increased density of basal cell layer melanosomes69 Fewer basal layer melanosomes were observed in fair-skinned Asian patients when compared to darker-skinned individuals72 Additional studies have shown that, in
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black skin, melanosomes are not only increased in the basal layer but also distributed throughout all layers of the epidermis23,73 This is in contrast to white skin where melanosomes are primarily limited to the basal layer The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) expressed on the keratinocyte plays a role in melanosome uptake via phagocytosis Trypsin activates PAR-2 in vivo Investigators have demonstrated that PAR-2 and trypsin have greater expression in darkly pigmented skin when compared to lighter skin In addition, PAR-2-induced phagocytosis is more efficient in darker skin types These data suggest that PAR-2 expression may play a role in darker skin phenotypes74 (see 13)
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COSMETIC DERMATOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
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Epidermis: Overall Architecture
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It is well established that SC thickness does not differ among ethnicities19 23 Overall skin thickness as measured by calipers also does not differ between white and black subjects75 Differences in the architecture of the epidermis between the races involve melanin and melanosome distribution as described above Other differences in epidermal architecture are related to UV damage These changes are described below
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pH, Elastic Recovery/Extensibility, Mast Cell Granules, Epidermal Innervation
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Three studies have examined pH in skin of color32,37,38 One demonstrated decreased pH in black skin after three tape strips but not at baseline, or after 9, 12, or 15 tape strips32 Another showed decreased pH in black skin when compared to white skin on the cheeks but not the legs38 The most recent study revealed no difference in pH between black and white subjects37 The data from these three studies are insufficient to draw any definitive conclusions on pH in skin of color Elastic recovery and extensibility have also been studied in black and white skin34,38 The current data are inconsistent and conflicting Based on the data, no conclusion can be made regarding skin biomechanics in different races Mast cell size and characteristics have been studied in black skin In one study, no histologic differences in the number and size of mast cells were identified23 However, electron microscopy of mast cells in black skin demonstrated larger granules, more parallel linear striations, and less curved lamellae Tryptase was localized to the parallel-linear striations in black skin and localized to the curved lamellae in white skin In this small
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PHOTOAGING IN SKIN OF COLOR
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UV Reactivity and Photoprotection
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The photoprotection conferred by melanin in darkly pigmented skin greatly influences the UV-induced differences observed in black and white skin Epidermal architecture in black and white subjects supports this notion One study demonstrated an intact, compact stratum lucidum in sun-exposed black skin, in contrast to a swollen, cellular stratum lucidum in sun-exposed white skin Black skin rarely exhibited atrophy, while white skin had numerous focal areas of atrophy, necrosis, vacuoles, and dyskeratosis23 Melanin clearly offers protection from UV light It acts as a neutral density filter to reduce penetration of all wavelengths of light equally76 In a study using skin samples from blacks and whites, investigators found that 5 times as much UV light reached the upper dermis of white skin when compared to black skin The authors determined that the main site of UV filtration in white patients was the SC, compared to the malpighian layer in black patients The average protection offered by melanin in black skin was
calculated to be equivalent to a sun protective factor (SPF) of 134 compared to 34 for white skin They concluded that the photoprotection observed in black skin was due to both increased melanin content and the unique distribution of melanosomes in dark skin76 Another study examined biopsies in black and white skin before and after solar-simulating radiation (SSR) After SSR, white skin displayed epidermal and dermal DNA damage, an influx of neutrophils, active proteolytic enzymes, and diffuse keratinocyte activation Black skin only demonstrated DNA damage in the suprabasal dermis This study of acute changes after SSR confirms the significance of UV protection imparted by melanin77 Racial differences in MED have been described Darkly pigmented black skin has been determined to have an MED up to 33 times greater than that of individuals with white skin70 In Japanese subjects, MED has also been correlated with skin color In this study, the investigators found that the greater the epidermal melanin content, the less severe the reaction to the sun78 It is important to note, however, that darker skin is not always predictive of MED As mentioned previously, in darker skin, pigmentation does not consistently correlate with MED4 Other factors may influence the ability to tan or burn in skin of color The process of skin tanning in different racial ethnic groups has been studied The most significant change noted after 1 MED exposure was an upward shift in the distribution of melanin to the middle layers of the epidermis This change was most dramatic in darker skin Such data provide the basis for a better understanding of tanning in the darker skin types79 One study examined skin in Korean subjects and the cumulative response to sun exposure Investigators compared constitutive and facultative (acquired) pigmentation in different age groups Facultative pigment of sun-exposed skin in Caucasians appears to reflect cumulative lifetime UV exposure In this study, constitutive pigment was highest during the first decade of life, decreased during the second decade, and was maintained during the third decade of life in Korean subjects In contrast to Caucasians, facultative pigmentation did not increase with age80
been observed in black skin In one study, older black subjects demonstrated flattening of the dermal epidermal junction when compared to younger subjects73 Elastic fiber degeneration and an increase in the superficial vascular plexus were also noted in the aged group The skin of older black subjects was also characterized by a decrease in the number of melanocytes73 A study in older Thai patients with a history of high sun exposure also showed epidermal atrophy, cell atypia, poor polarity, and disorderly differentiation 81 In a study of Japanese patients, the relationship between skin phototype and facial wrinkling was examined As expected, higher scores were recorded for deep wrinkles in individuals with Fitzpatrick SPT I Interestingly, the same tendency was not demonstrated for fine wrinkle scores82
matosis papulosa nigra is another common clinical sign of aging in patients with skin of color Based on these studies, photoaging, although delayed, does occur in skin of color Despite the significant protection offered by melanin in darker skin types, these data suggest that photoprotection should still be emphasized in patients with skin of color
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN SKIN OF COLOR CHAPTER 14 SKIN OF COLOR
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