THE KERATINOCYTE in .NET

Creating QR Code in .NET THE KERATINOCYTE

THE KERATINOCYTE
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Keratinocytes, also known as corneocytes, are the cells that comprise the majority of the epidermis Keratin filaments are major components of the keratinocytes, and provide structural support There are two types of keratin filaments: acidic (type I, K10 20) and basic (type II, K 1 10) They both must be expressed for a keratin filament to
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FIGURE 1-1 The layers of the epidermis
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5 4 5 3 5 4 5 2 5 4 1 3 5 5 4 5 Transit amplifying
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6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Terminally differentiated
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Stem Cells
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FIGURE 1-3 The stem cells divide and produce amplifying cells that greatly increase the number of keratinocytes These in turn become the mature, terminal, and differentiated cells The numbers indicate the cell generation that confers greater mechanical strength to the cell It is worth mentioning that under hyperproliferative conditions such as actinic keratosis, wound healing, and psoriasis, keratins 6 and 16 are upregulated in the suprabasal keratinocytes Lamellar granules, which are considered the first sign of keratinization, first appear in this layer They contain lipids such as ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids as well as enzymes such as proteases, acid phosphatase, lipases, and glycosidases It has been recently shown that cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide, is also stored in the lamellar granules2 These granules migrate to the surface and expel their contents by exocytosis The released lipids coat the surface, imparting barrier-like properties Desmosomes are very prominent in this layer, thus accounting for the name spinous layer The advanced stage of differentiation of suprabasal keratinocytes is conducive to staining for products not found on basal cells (ie, sugar complexes and blood group antigens) The cytoplasm contains proteins not found in the lower layers such as involucrin, keratolinin, and loricrin These proteins become cross-linked in the SC to confer strength to the layer THE GRANULAR LAYER (STRATUM GRANULOSUM) Granular layer keratinocytes reside in the uppermost viable layer of the epidermis The granules represent keratohyaline granules, which contain profilaggrin, the precursor to filaggrin The protein filaggrin cross-links keratin filaments providing strength and structure The proteins of the cornified cell envelope (involucrin, keratolinin, pancornulins, and loricrin) are cross-linked in this layer by the calcium-requiring enzyme transglutaminase (TGase) to form the cell envelope There are four types of transglutaminases present in the epidermis: TGase 1 or keratinocyte TGase, TGase 2 or tissue TGase, TGase 3 or epidermal TGase, and TGase 5 Only TGases 1, 3, and 5 participate in the development of the corneocyte envelope (CE) formation TGase 2 has other functions including a role in apoptosis (programmed cell death) It is known that TGase activity increases with
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the elevation of Ca2+ levels in the medium of cultured keratinocytes3 This in turn results in the formation of the cornified cell envelope and differentiation of keratinocytes4,5 The active metabolite of vitamin D, known as 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], also plays a role in keratinocyte differentiation (Box 1-1) It enhances the Ca2+ effect on the keratinocytes, and increases transglutaminase activity as well as involucrin levels,6 the combined effects of which induce CE formation7,8 Calcium is known to be an inducer of differentiation and a suppressor of proliferation in epidermal keratinocytes9,10 It has been shown that in the state of low Ca2+ levels (005 mM), keratinocytes are in a proliferative stage, while increases in Ca2+ levels (010 016 mM) lead to expression of differentiation markers such as keratins 1 and 10, TGase, and filaggrin9 Granular cells exhibit anabolic properties such as synthesis of filaggrin, cornified cell envelope proteins, and high molecular weight keratins In addition, they show catabolic events such as dissolution of the nucleus and organelles THE HORNY LAYER (SC) The most superficial layer of the epidermis is the SC or horny layer, which is, on average, approximately 15-cell layers thick13,14 The keratinocytes that reside in this layer are the most mature and have completed the keratinization process These keratinocytes contain no organelles and their arrangement resembles a brick wall The SC is composed of protein-rich corneocytes embedded in a bilayer lipid matrix assembled in a brick and mortar fashion The bricks are composed of keratinocytes and the mortar is made up of the contents extruded from the lamellar granules including lipids and proteins (Fig 1-4) Cells of the midcornified layer have the most amino acid content and therefore have the highest capability for binding to water, while the
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