Solar wavelengths in VS .NET

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Solar wavelengths
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Solar spectrum Wavelengths (nm) Stratospheric ozone layer Solar spectrum reaching the surface of the earth Skin outer layer (stratum corneum) Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis FIGURE 29-4 UVA, visible light, and infrared radiation can penetrate into the dermis, while UVB cannot UVC UVB 200 290 UVA 320 VISIBLE 400 IR 800
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research regarding the incorporation of UVA (320 400 nm) into the sun protection index Globally, there are several UVA rating systems and the FDA is currently trying to decide which rating system to make the standard in the US Because there is no consensus standard for UVA testing, products in the US do not provide any UVA coverage information on the product label This is obviously a significant problem
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sunscreen It is hoped that this warning will increase awareness that sun avoidance and limiting sun exposure are also necessary This proposal has not yet been accepted and the star rating system was not yet in place when this chapter was completed Search wwwfdagov to find out the current sunscreen rulings
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TESTING TO DETERMINE UVA PROTECTION
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As suggested above, ascertaining the optimal UVA rating method is difficult and even contentious Each manufacturer believes that the method they use is the best L Or al developed the persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method,17 while Johnson & Johnson developed the protection factor UVA (PFA) method18 The PPD and PFA are very similar approaches in that they both measure end-result tanning19 The FDA has not yet determined which UVA measurement method is best because all methods lack an endpoint measure that is a true surrogate marker for long wavelength (ie, 340 nm) UVA-induced skin damage (ie, skin cancer or photoaging)19 The FDA seems to be most seriously considering two methods of UVA testing: the critical wavelength method and the PFA (PA) method The critical wavelength was developed in 1994 and is an in vitro testing method20 It involves placing a certain amount of sunscreen on a slide and exposing the
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THE FDA AND SUNCREEN
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As this textbook went to press, the FDA was considering the problem of UVA and sunscreen labeling In August 2007, the FDA proposed the creation of a new rating system for UVA sunscreen products16 This system would be based on a scale of one to four stars, with one star representing low UVA protection, two stars, medium protection, three stars, high protection, and four stars, the highest UVA protection available in an OTC sunscreen product Under this proposal, a sunscreen product that fails to provide at least a low level (one star) of protection would bear a no UVA protection marking on the front label near the SPF value In addition, a warning would be required on labels stating: UV exposure from the sun increases the risk of skin cancer, premature skin aging, and other skin damage It is important to decrease UV exposure by limiting time in the sun, wearing protective clothing, and using a
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slide to progressively higher wavelengths of light starting at 290 nm, the beginning of the UVB range When 10% of the incident light passes through the slide, or the protection provided by the sunscreen has dropped to 90%, the corresponding wavelength of light is recorded For sunscreens with SPF 15 or above, this is a good measure of UVA protection If one is testing a low-SPF product, below SPF 15, this is thought to be a suboptimal method The PFA (PA) method is similar to the UVB SPF rating insofar as it is an in vivo test that measures what is in essence the tanning effect of short wavelength UVA rays (320 350 nm)21 This is widely used in Europe However, the PFA (PA) system measures an observed effect (tanning), not the biologic endpoint It is possible that the FDA will recommend a combination of the critical wavelength and PFA (PA) methods (Tables 29-1 and 29-2 for a brief summary of the three types of tests to ascertain sunscreen efficacy and for related non-US standards) Another approach to measuring UVA involves the quantitative measurement of free radicals in human skin induced by UV radiation22 Reactive free radicals have been correlated with the occurrence of skin damage such as cancer and skin aging The method of measuring free radicals is known as electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy This technique incorporates the radical trapping properties of nitroxides Nitroxides are antioxidant
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