COSMETIC DERMATOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE in VS .NET

Make QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in VS .NET COSMETIC DERMATOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

COSMETIC DERMATOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
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TABLE 31-1 Structure of Commonly Used Surfactants in Cleansing SKIN TYPE Type I Type II Type III Type IV Type V Type VI APPEARANCE Very fair; blond or red hair; light-colored eyes; freckles common O Fair skinned; light eyes; light hair R C VeryM+ O- common skin type; fair; eye and hair color varies Alkyl carboxylates Mediterranean Caucasian skin; medium to (soaps) heavily pigmented O Mideastern skin; O sun sensitive rarely - + Black skin, rarely sun sensitive REACTION TO SUN EXPOSURE Always burns, never tans
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Burns easily O Alkylether sulfates (Anionic active in liquids) Sometimes burns, gradually tans Rarely burns, always tans Tans O Tans easily NH (CH ) R C 2 3
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Alkyl isethionates (Active in Syndet bars)
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Alkylamidopropyl betaines (Coactive in liquids)
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SYNTHETIC DETERGENT BARS Bars composed of synthetic surfactants are often referred to as syndet bars Unlike soaps, these surfactants are created via esterification, ethoxylaton, and sulfonation of oils, fats, or petroleum products Alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate, alpha olefin sulfonates, betaines, sulfosuccinates, sodium cocoyl monoglyceride sulfate, and sodium cocoyl isethionate are among the commonly included synthetic surfactants in syndet bars3 Cleansing bars with soap (alkyl carboxylate) are formulated in the alkaline pH range with pH values as high as 10 to 105 In contrast, syndet bars (alkyl isethionate-based bars) are formulated in the neutral pH range High-meltingpoint fatty acids, waxes, and esters are among the other ingredients included in syndet bars3 Notably, sodium cocoyl isethionate, the most frequently used synthetic surfactant, exhibits unique molecular characteristics that have defined a new dimension in the mildness of cleansing bars as described later in this chapter
Typical Surfactants Used in Cleansing Liquids
Liquid cleansers often use a combination of anionic and amphoteric (neutral charge) surfactants Increasingly, nonionic surfactants and amino acid-based surfactants are being included in cleanser systems because of their capacity to enhance mildness Typical anionic surfactants used in liquid cleansers include soaps (salts of fatty acids) and synthetic surfactants such as alkyl ether sulfate, alkyl acyl isethionates, alkyl phosphates, alkyl sulfosuccinates, and alkyl sulfonates Amino acid-based anionic surfactants such as acyl glycinates are being used more frequently as primary surfactants in liquid cleansing systems Commonly used zwitterionic surfactants include cocoamido propyl betaine and cocoamphoacetate Alkyl polyglucoside is one of the nonionic surfactants found in some cleansers Amino acid-based surfactants such as alkyl glutamates, sarcosinates, and glycinates are being used with increasing frequency in cleansers Most liquid cleansers are formulated in the neutral to acidic pH range except those that contain soap (alkyl carboxylate) as the main active ingredient; such products tend to remain in the alkaline range
perfumes Perfume is probably the single most expensive ingredient in a cleanser and its importance from a consumer perspective cannot be overlooked In cleansing bars, structurants are required to maintain the solid format and to facilitate the rather complex manufacturing process Commonly used structurants include long-chain fatty acids, waxes, and alkyl esters In liquids, the role of the structurant is to provide the right rheology/consistency for the product for optimal dispensing and in-use experience In addition, structurants also ensure physical stability of dispersed/suspended phases and are often included to provide moisturization benefits Emollients are added to cleansers to minimize the drying effects of the surfactants Typical emollients/ occlusives used in moisturizing shower gels are triglyceride oils, lipids, petrolatum, waxes, and mineral oil Watersoluble humectants such as glycerol are also used in cleansing systems to impart a moisturizing effect Cleansers formulated for specific benefits may contain other functional ingredients For example, antimicrobial cleansers often contain bactericidal actives such as triclosan or triclocarban Such ingredients are limited to those approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific use in cleansing products The FDA regulates synthetic cleansers and those intended to confer antibacterial or other drug-like effects; the Consumer Product Safety Commission regulates pure soap products Cleansers designed for frequent hand disinfection among health care workers or food handlers have even more stringent requirements and often contain potent cationic antimicrobials such as chlorohexidine or benzalkonium chloride Other functional ingredients are also found in facial cleansers designed for acne treatment and include actives such as salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide These products often have a relatively low pH With advances in skin care benefit delivery from cleansers, other actives such as antiaging ingredients and skin nutrients are beginning to appear in cleansing formulations
and 15% water and is about 20 m in thickness (~10 layers) This membrane prevents extraneous materials from penetrating into the body as well as controls and prevents the loss of materials from within the skin The SC is characterized by a brick-and-mortar-like structure with protein bricks embedded in a lipid matrix (see 1) Protein bricks, called corneocytes, are essentially flattened cells (~2 m in thickness) with a proteinaceous envelope within which keratin bundles are present along with low-molecular-weight water-soluble amino acids Part of the water in the SC is present within the corneocytes and it is associated with the keratin bundle as well as with the low-molecular-weight amino acids, often referred to as natural moisturizing factor (NMF) The rest of the water resides with the head groups of the lipid layer Water in the SC is important for maintaining its flexibility, elasticity, and various biologic processes Corneocytes in one layer are also bound to those in adjacent layers through protein links called desmosomes Enzymes present in the upper layers of the SC break down the desmosomal proteins allowing the cells to be exfoliated in an orderly manner12 During cleansing, the SC is exposed to a relatively high concentration of surfactants (5% 20%) At these concentrations, surfactants have the ability to damage SC proteins and lipids, and increase the leaching/removal of water-soluble amino acids (NMF) The extent of damage depends upon the nature of the surfactant and the cleansing conditions (eg, water temperature and hardness)
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