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CHAPTER 31 CLEANSING AGENTS
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Immediate (Short-Term) Effects of Cleansing
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SC hydration increases markedly during cleansing (since the SC absorbs water) and the excess water evaporates off within 10 to 30 minutes after washing Hypothetical curves of changes to SC hydration immediately after a single wash are depicted in Fig 31-3 As water evaporates at a rapid rate from the upper layers, a differential stress is created in the SC and this is thought to be the origin of the after-wash-tightness perception As the evaporation rate reduces to its normal level, the stress is relieved and the tightness disappears These effects become even more acute under lowhumidity and low-temperature conditions Low humidity will certainly reduce the equilibrium hydration levels in the SC
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EFFECTS OF CLEANSERS ON SKIN
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The stratum cornuem (SC) is the uppermost layer of skin and acts as its protective barrier12 14 The SC consists of approximately 70% proteins, 15% lipids,
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Other Elements of a Skin Cleanser
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In addition to surfactants, cleansers contain structurants, sensory modifiers, and
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Wash
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Skin Hydration, arbitrary units
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porcine skin assay (Fig 31-5), the higher loss of water-soluble proteins after a single wash with soap versus syndet is consistent with the higher damage/drying potential of the soap18
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Effects on Lipids
Among the three classes of lipids in the SC, specifically cholesterol, fatty acids, and ceramides, the latter because of its two-tailed and unusually long alkyl chain is not likely to get solubilized by the surfactants Cholesterol and lower chain length versions of the fatty acids (eg, C18, C20 fatty acids as opposed to C24 and C28 fatty acids) may get solubilized in the micelle Note, however, that even without any solubilization of SC lipids by surfactant micelles, simply by surfactant monomer intercalation into the bilayer, stress and damage can be imparted to the lipid bilayer Insertion of anionic surfactants into the lipid bilayer can induce a charge in the bilayer and alter membrane packing and permeability Results with model liposomes indicate that surfactant insertion into the bilayer is usually the first step toward destabilizing the bilayer, eventually leading to the break-up of the bilayer and yielding mixed micelle formation/ solubilization of the liposome19,20 Even partial/preferential removal of lipids such as cholesterol from the SC can render the bilayer lipid unstable Results regarding the removal of cholesterol by soap and the syndet bar are provided in Fig 31-5 and show that soap removes more cholesterol than the syndet While the exact reasons for this difference are
(~10 min)
(~30 min)
(~60 min)
SC swelling relative to water at pH 6
COSMETIC DERMATOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Before wash
After wash
FIGURE 31-3 Schematic of the relative change in skin water content during a typical cleansing routine Note the swelling and deswelling of the corneocytes in response to changes in water content (Reproduced from Ananthapadmanabhan KP, Subramanyan K, Nole G Moisturizing cleansers In: Loden M, Maibach H, eds Dry Skin and Moisturizers, Chemistry & Function 2nd ed Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2006:405-428) Three factors govern how SC hydration changes during and immediately after washing5: (1) the amount of water that the SC absorbs during cleansing; (2) the rate of water evaporation immediately after drying; and (3) the equilibrium SC water content as determined by the humidity and temperature conditions immediately after washing All of these changes are influenced by the nature of the cleanser surfactant through its impact on the SC proteins and lipids as briefly described below SC swelling,12 further suggesting the benefits of pH-neutral cleansing Harsh surfactants have been shown to also remove more NMF from skin17 This may be because of the damage to the corneocyte envelope caused by the harsh surfactant that exposes intracellular NMF to leaching Surfactant binding to proteins may also reduce the waterholding capacity of the proteins In either case, there is a correlation between harshness of the surfactant and the increasing loss of water-soluble proteins As can be seen in the results of a
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