BSTS and Ethnic Skin Variations in Visual Studio .NET

Paint QR-Code in Visual Studio .NET BSTS and Ethnic Skin Variations

BSTS and Ethnic Skin Variations
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Many endogenous and exogenous factors, as indicated earlier, are known to affect sebum secretion and skin oiliness
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Ethnic differences in sebum secretion have not been well studied Most of the available reports on oily skin are based on the Caucasian human model; therefore, less is known about sebum secretion in darker skin types In spite of this, many myths abound that darker skin types have increased sebum secretion In the few studies performed, this has not been shown to be the case One study by Grimes et al compared instrumental measurements for sebum, pH, corneometry (skin moisture), or transepidermal water loss (barrier function) and found no difference between African Americans and Caucasians67 A recent study at the University of Miami used the BSTS to look for ethnic differences in skin type This unpublished study included 399 subjects of four different ethnic groups: Caucasians, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians Categorization of skin type according to the BSTS was used and each of the study subjects was designated a skin type The percentage of oily skin subjects among each ethnic group was in ascending manner: Caucasians (4713%), Hispanics (5588%), Asians (5770%), and African Americans (619%) This study was the first to use the BSTS to compare ethnic differences and demonstrates some variability in skin types by ethnicity Although it reports an increased incidence of oily skin among African Americans, it is important to realize that all subjects were being treated in a general dermatology clinic in Miami and therefore may not be representative of the general population
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Pigmented or Nonpigmented Wrinkled or Tight
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CHAPTER 10 OILY SKIN
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Oily or Dry
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Very dry Slightly dry Combination Slightly oily Very Oily
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Very sensitive Somewhat sensitive Somewhat resistant Very resistant
Pigmented Nonpigmented
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Scores between 7-28 determine severity with low scores being very dry and high scores being very oily
Designation
Oily (O)
Baumann Skin Type Indicator (BSTI) evaluation algorithm for an oily (O) skin type
FIGURE 10-5 The BSTI is used to determine whether skin is very dry, slightly dry, combination, slightly oily, or very oily
Other studies have shown black subjects to have 60% to 70% more lipids in their hair compared with white subjects Another study suggested an increased pore number and sebaceous secretion among African Americans compared to other racial groups68 Ethnic skin differences in skin lipids remain inconclusive given the discrepancies in study results Despite the paucity of available data on ethnic skin differences and surface lipid variations among different ethnic groups, the majority of available studies suggest an existing disparity in skin of color as compared to lighter skin tones Further research is needed to be able to identify the exact areas of differences in order to develop optimum regimens for targeting ethnic skin conditions
CHANGE IN SEBUM PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE
It is generally and scientifically accepted that the severity of acne correlates, and is directly proportional, to the sebum secretion level69 However, the correlation of sebum excretion rates and acne has been a subject of debate since the early 1960s when Fry and Ramsay measured sebum excretion in 17 acne patients and reported that there was no direct relation of the sebum excretion rate to acne severity70 Cunliffe and Shuster, using a better collection technique in the late 1960s, demonstrated that sebum excretion is directly related to the severity of acne71 Many recent studies have indicated that sebum levels are indeed higher in the acne population Pi rard et al demonstrated a higher overall sebum excretion rate in acne subjects when studying it on the forehead using the Lipometre5 Pi rardFranchimont et al noted a change in the rate of sebum excretion directly proportional to the severity of acne72 Harris et al used disks of fine Dacron mesh embedded in fresh clay to report that inflammatory acne patients had a higher sustainable rate of sebum excretion73 Recently, Kim et al confirmed increased sebum secretion rates in subjects with acne using the Sebumeter in a study on 36 Asian patients74 However, it is important to realize that even though acne is associated with high sebum rates, all patients with high sebum rates do not develop acne Patients with high sebum rates and no acne are classified as oily resistant types in the BSTS (see 9)
Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit Acne is a multifactorial condition with distinct pathologic factors including increased sebum production, ductal hypercornification, colonization of ducts by Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes), and inflammation2 For a full review on acne vulgaris, refer to 15 PPARs , , and may play a role in acne and increased sebum production These receptors have been identified in sebocytes, with the form being the most important Free fatty acids, linoleic acid, and androgens activate these receptors, which bind to RXR retinoid receptors (in the formation of heterodimers) inducing modifications of sebocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as the synthesis of free fatty acids PPARs are therefore involved in the maturation of the SGs and initiation of the inflammatory reaction in acne The PPARs present in the SGs of hyperseborrheic patients are at a higher level, suggesting a disordered effect on the natural retinoids and leading to the development of acne68
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