ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN WATER LOSS in .NET

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ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN WATER LOSS
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Various body parts are known to regulate water loss differently For example, the soles and palms regulate water loss poorly, while facial skin is relatively water impermeable While the functions of the SC lipids are not fully understood, evidence supports the notion that lipids play a critical role in skin permeability One study found no relationship between barrier function and the thickness or the number of cell layers in the SC48 However, an inverse relationship was discovered between lipid weight percent and permeability Researchers found that the lipid weight percent was higher in the face (less permeable) and lower in the plantar SC (more permeable) Another study was conducted to identify the components of this lipid weight percent and how they vary site to site49 Investigators compared characteristics from the abdomen, leg, face, and sole, and found that the areas with superior barrier properties contained a higher percent of neutral lipids and lower amount of sphingolipids In other words, the neutral lipid to sphingolipid ratio was proportional to the known permeability of each site Interestingly, the plantar surface, known to be the most permeable, contained the highest amounts of sphingolipids
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CHAPTER 11 DRY SKIN
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Filaggrin
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Arginine
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Trans-Urocanic acid (Trans-UCA)
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Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid
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Citrulline
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Epidermal Hydration
FIGURE 11-6 A Filaggrin has multiple functions depending on where in the epidermis it is found It has a structural role in lower layers and a hydration role in upper layers B Trans-UCA, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and citrulline provide osmolarity regulating skin hydration (Adapted from Elias PM Stratum corneum defensive functions: an integrated view J Invest Dermatol 2005;125(2):183-200)
SEBUM
Sebum-derived lipids may also play a part in dry skin pathophysiology by preventing water loss through forming lipid films on the skin s surface that function as an emollient However, low levels of sebaceous gland activity have not been consistently correlated with the occurrence of dry skin and the impact of sebum on dry skin conditions is poorly understood20 Choi et al compared sebum production and SC hydration and found that even though males had sebum secretion levels 30% to 40% higher than women, the males did not show greater SC hydration on the sebaceous gland enriched forehead sites than did females
They also showed that prepubertal children whose sebaceous glands have not reached maximal function demonstrated normal levels of SC hydration They did, however, find a correlation with glycerol levels and SC hydration that can help explain the role of the sebaceous glands in dry skin The sebaceous glands utilize large amounts of triglycerides, leading to the production of glycerol Supplying glycerol for skin hydration may be an important role for sebaceous glands44 This theory is supported by the fact that mice with hypoplastic sebaceous glands have poor SC hydration and low SC glycerol levels47 However, glycerol can come from sources other than the sebaceous glands, which would explain the normal
ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES AND THE EPIDERMAL BARRIER
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are components of the innate immune system of the skin They exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi Defensins and cathelecidins are two major groups of AMPs Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic AMPs present in mammalians that are categorized into two subgroups: -defensins and -defensins defensins are mostly found in neutrophils50,51 and panteh cells of small intestines52 -defensins, on the other hand, are present in the epidermis,53,54 and possess antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, Candida albicans, and fungi54 58
BOX 11-3 How the Skin Responds to Changes in the Environment The skin is able to adjust to changes in humidity This process takes several days, so skin may be dry and in amed during the rst few days of exposure to decreased humidity, but several mechanisms seem to allow skin to adjust to these environmental changes Epidermal permeability function is increased in a low-humidity environment70 It has been found that changes in hydration status signal several downstream responses, including epidermal DNA synthesis and catabolism of laggrin into deiminated carboxylic acid metabolites71,72 NMF production is increased in low-humidity environments as well73,74
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