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If you see a configuration interface that refers to a 64-bit or 128-bit WEP key, keep in mind that the WEP implementation uses an initialization vector that is 24 bits long for both 40- and 104-bit WEP Of course, 40 plus 24 is 64 and 104 plus 24 is 128 The initialization vector (IV) is a nonstatic 24-bit number that is generated for each frame However, a 24-bit pool results in only 16,777,216 possible unique IVs The limited pool requires the reuse of IV values at some eventual time The 24-bit IV is transmitted in cleartext For this reason, the encryption is said to be 40-bit or 104-bit and not 64-bit or 128-bit, although it is quite common to see vendors intermingle the nomenclature Some vendors have even expanded WEP by allowing a 128-bit encryption key for a total of a 156-bit WEP key when the 24-bit IV is added This implementation is nonstandard and, if implemented, requires the use of a specialized supplicant (WLAN client) that can handle the nonstandard encryption key size WEP is only intended to protect the data payload in a frame For this reason, the header portion of the frame is not encrypted The header includes the source and destination MAC addresses and can easily be read using a protocol analyzer that supports the capture of 80211 frames One major problem with WEP, as I ll discuss in detail under WEP Weaknesses following, is that once you have a valid WEP key, you can decrypt all the packets that use that WEP key This works with all captured data packets from the capture session and can be replayed later when a valid WEP key is used in the protocol analyzer A hacker can use this method to capture encrypted packets and later, after successfully performing a brute-force or dictionary attack, view all the packets in their unencrypted form
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The WEP Process An understanding of the basic WEP process will help you to understand the weaknesses that are covered next The WEP process starts with the inputs to the process These inputs include the data that should be encrypted (usually called plaintext), the secret key (40-bits or 104-bits), and the IV (24-bits) These inputs are passed through the WEP algorithms to generate the output (the ciphertext or encrypted data) Since WEP is a layer 2 security implementation, it doesn t matter what type of data is being transmitted as long as it originates above layer 2 in the OSI model In order to encrypt the data, the RC4 algorithm is used to create a pseudorandom string of bits called a keystream The WEP static key and the IV are used to seed the pseudorandom number generator used by the RC4 algorithm The resulting keystream is XORed against the plaintext to generate the ciphertext The ciphertext alone is transferred without the keystream; however, the IV is sent to the receiver The receiver uses the IV that was transmitted and the stored static WEP key to feed
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the same pseudorandom number generator to regenerate the same keystream The XOR is reversed at the receiver to recover the original plaintext from the ciphertext While the full details of WEP s functionality are beyond the scope of this book and the CWTS exam, it is important to note that the plaintext that is actually encrypted includes the upper-layer payload plus an Integrity Check Value (ICV) that is used to verify that the frame was not modified between the sender and receiver The ICV is encrypted with the data payload and becomes part of the ciphertext
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WEP Weaknesses WEP was never intended to provide impenetrable security, but was only intended to protect against casual eavesdropping With the rapid increase in processor speeds, cracking WEP has become a very short task and it can no longer be considered for protection against any organized attack The weaknesses in WEP include the following:
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Brute-force attacks Dictionary attacks Weak IV attacks Re-injection attacks Storage attacks
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In late 2000 and early 2001, the security weaknesses of WEP became clear Since then many attack methods have been developed and tools have been created that make these attack methods simple to implement for entry-level technical individuals The brute-force attack method is a key guessing method that attempts every possible key in order to crack the encryption With 104-bit WEP, this is really not a feasible attack method; however, 40-bit WEP can usually be cracked in one or two days with brute-force attacks using more than 20 distributed computers The short timeframe is accomplished using a distributed cracking tool like jc-wepcrack jc-wepcrack is actually two tools: the client and the server You would first start the tool on the server and configure it for the WEP key size you think the WLAN uses that you are cracking and provide it with a pcap file (a capture of encrypted frames) from that network Next, you launch the client program and configure it to connect to the server The client program will request a portion of the keys to be guessed and will attempt to access the encrypted frames with those keys With the modern addition of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), which are add-on boards for
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