2d barcode generator java source code 7: Data and Process Modeling in Software

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7: Data and Process Modeling
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partnership, or corporation) so that correspondence can be addressed appropriately for each type Figure 7-6 shows the logical data model that was developed based on the new requirements In IE notation, the type or category is shown using a symbol that looks like a circle with a line under it Therefore, you know that Individual Customer and Commercial Customer are subtypes of Customer because of the symbol that appears in the line that connects them Also note that they share the exact same primary key and that in the subtypes, the primary key of the entity is also a foreign key to the super type entity This makes perfect sense when you consider the fact that an Individual Customer entity is a Customer, meaning that any occurrence of the Individual Customer entity would have a tuple in the Customer relation as well as a matching tuple in the Individual Customer entity
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CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NUMBER CUSTOMER TYPE ADDRESS CITY STATE ZIP CODE PHONE CUSTOMER TYPE
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INDIVIDUAL CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NUMBER (FK) FIRST NAME MIDDLE INITIAL LAST NAME DATE OF BIRTH ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME
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COMMERCIAL CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NUMBER (FK) COMPANY NAME TAX IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ANNUAL GROSS REVENUE COMPANY TYPE COMPANY TYPE
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Figure 7-6 Customer subclasses
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Databases: A Beginner s Guide
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Usually an attribute in the super type entity indicates which subtype is assigned to each entity occurrence (tuple) Once this is implemented in tables, database users can use the type attribute to know where to look for (that is, which subtype table contains) the remainder of the information about each entity occurrence (each row) Such an attribute is called the type discriminator and is named next to the type symbol on the ERD Therefore, Customer Type is the type discriminator that indicates whether a given Customer is an Individual Customer or a Commercial Customer Similarly, Company Type is the type discriminator that indicates whether a given Commercial Customer is a sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation As you might imagine, this IE notation is not the only format used in ERDs for super types and subtypes However, it is the most commonly used method Another popular format is to draw the subtype entities within the super type entity (that is, subtype entity rectangles drawn inside the corresponding super type entity s rectangle) Although this format makes it visually clear that the subtypes really are just a part of the super type, it has practical limitations when the entities are broken down into many levels As mentioned, finding the right level of specialization is a significant database design challenge In reviewing the logical design as proposed in Figure 7-6, the database design team noticed something: The only difference among the Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, and Corporation subtypes is in the way that the names of key people in those types of companies appear as attributes Moreover, the use of two nearly identical attributes for the names of the co-owners in the Partnership subtype could be considered a repeating attribute, and therefore a first normal form violation The design team elected to generalize these names into the Commercial Customer entity, but in doing so, they recognized the first normal form problems and decided to place them into a separate relation called Commercial Customer Principal This led to the ERD shown in Figure 7-7 Clearly this is a simpler design that will result in fewer tables when it is physically implemented It offers a very big win, because not only is there no loss of function when you consolidate the subtypes into the super type, but you actually have more function available because you can add as many names as you want to any type of commercial customer Further study by the design team helped them realize the similarity between the name attributes now contained in the Commercial Customer Principal entity and those contained in the Individual Customer entity In discussing options further with the Customer Service Department, the design team uncovered a few cases for which it would be desirable for multiple contact names to be recorded for individual customers as well as for commercial customers For example, customers that have legal disputes often request that all contact go through an attorney With that information, the design team decided to generalize
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