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SQL*Plus Commands in Scripts
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SQL*Plus scripts may contain a mixture of SQL commands and SQL*Plus commands. This combination makes SQL*Plus a nice report-generating tool, as you will see in the next section of this chapter. One small problem is that SQL*Plus commands (entered interactively) don t go into the SQL buffer. Normally this is helpful, because it allows you to repeat your most recent SQL command from the SQL buffer, while executing SQL*Plus commands in between. However, this implies that you cannot add any SQL*Plus commands to your scripts with the SAVE ... APPEND command. To get SQL*Plus commands into your scripts, you can use one of the following: An external editor A separate SQL*Plus buffer Using an external editor is the most straightforward approach, in most cases. For example, you can use Notepad in a Microsoft Windows environment to maintain your SQL*Plus scripts. The charm of using a separate SQL*Plus buffer is that it is completely platform- and operating system-independent, and it is fully driven from the interactive SQL*Plus prompt. That s why we discuss using a separate buffer here. Listing 11-25 shows an example of using a separate SQL*Plus buffer to generate scripts. To try this out, execute the CLEAR BUFFER and SET BUFFER BLAHBLAH commands, followed by the INPUT command, and enter the following 14 lines verbatim. Exit SQL*Plus input mode by entering another newline, so that you return to the SQL*Plus prompt. Listing 11-25. Using a Separate SQL*Plus Buffer to Generate Scripts SQL> SQL> SQL> 1 2 clear buffer set buffer blahblah input clear screen set verify off
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CHAPTER 11 SQL*PLUS AND i SQL*PLUS
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3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 SQL>
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set pause off accept dept number prompt "Enter a department number: " select * from departments where deptno = &dept; select ename, job, msal from employees where deptno = &dept; undefine dept set pause on set verify on
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Now you can save the script and test it, as follows: SQL> save testscript2 Created file testscript2.sql SQL> @testscript2 Enter a department number: 20 ... The SET BUFFER command (choose any buffer name you like) creates a nondefault SQL*Plus buffer.
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Note According to the SQL*Plus documentation, using additional buffers is a deprecated feature since
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the early 1990s, from SQL*Plus version 3.0 onward. However, it seems to be the only way to prevent the SQL*Plus SAVE command from appending a slash (/) at the end of the script, which would execute the last SQL command twice if you have a SQL*Plus command at the end, as in Listing 11-25.
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You can only manipulate the contents of nondefault SQL*Plus buffers with the SQL*Plus editor commands, and use SAVE and GET for file manipulation. You cannot execute the contents of those buffers with the START or @ command, because these commands operate only on the SQL buffer. That s why you must save the script with the SAVE command before you can use it. SQL*Plus commands are normally entered on a single line. If that is impossible, or if you want to make your scripts more readable, you must explicitly escape the newline character with a minus sign (-), as we did before with the ACCEPT command in Listing 11-10, and again in Listing 11-25.
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Note The examples in the remainder of this chapter show only the contents of the SQL*Plus scripts. It is
up to you to decide which method you want to use to create and maintain those scripts.
CHAPTER 11 SQL*PLUS AND i SQL*PLUS
The login.sql Script
One special SQL*Plus script must be mentioned here: login.sql. SQL*Plus automatically executes this script when you start a SQL*Plus session, as long as the login.sql script is located in the folder (or directory) from where you start SQL*Plus, or if that script can be found via the SQLPATH environment variable (under Linux) or Registry setting (under Microsoft Windows). Note that there is also a global SQL*Plus glogin.sql script. This script is executed for every user, and it allows you to have a mixture of global settings and personal settings in a multiuser environment. In a single-user Oracle environment, using both scripts is useless and can be confusing. The glogin.sql script is normally located in the sqlplus/admin directory under the Oracle installation directory.
Caution In Oracle Database 10g, SQL*Plus also executes the glogin.sql and login.sql scripts if you execute a CONNECT command, without leaving SQL*Plus. This didn t happen with earlier releases of SQL*Plus.
You can use the glogin.sql and login.sql scripts to set various SQL*Plus system variables, user-defined variables, and column definitions. Listing 11-26 shows an example of a login.sql script, demonstrating that you can also execute SQL commands from this script. You can test it by saving this file to the right place and restarting SQL*Plus. Listing 11-26. Example of a login.sql Script -- =========================================== -- LOGIN.SQL -- =========================================== set pause "Enter... " set pause on set numwidth 6 set pagesize 24 alter session set nls_date_format='dd-mm-yyyy'; -- define_editor=Notepad /* for Windows */ -- define_editor=vi /* for UNIX */ clear screen
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