qr code java app Formatting Data in Java

Paint QR Code in Java Formatting Data

Example
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The following example shows how to create a formatted string by use of a string stream Once the formatted string has been constructed, it is output in its entirety
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// Use a string stream to store formatted output in a string #include <iostream> #include <sstream> #include <locale>
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6:
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Formatting Data
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#include <iomanip> using namespace std; int main() { locale usloc("English_US"); ostringstream ostr; // Set showbase flag so that currency symbol is displayed ostr << showbase; // Set the locale of ostr to US English ostrimbue(usloc); // Get a money_put facet for ostr const money_put<char> &us_mon = use_facet<money_put<char> >(ostrgetloc()); // Format a value in US dollars us_monput(ostr, false, ostr, ' ', "5498499"); cout << "Money formatted for US: "; cout << ostrstr() << "\n\n"; // Give a new, empty string to ostr ostrstr(string()); // Now, construct a table of circular areas ostr << setprecision(4) << showpoint << fixed << left; ostr << "Diameter Area\n"; cout << "A table of circular areas\n"; for(int i=1; i < 10; ++i) ostr << left << " " << setw(6) << i << setw(8) << right << i*31416 << endl; // Display the formatted string cout << ostrstr(); return 0; }
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The output is shown here:
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Money formatted for US: $54,98499 A table of Diameter 1 2 3 circular areas Area 31416 62832 94248
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Options and Alternatives
The C legacy function sprintf( ) offers another way to write formatted output to a string It is described in the Options and Alternatives section for the recipe Use printf( ) to Format Data Because of its potential for buffer overruns, and because the string streams offer a more flexible alternative, sprintf( ) is not recommend for new code It is included in this book only because of its extensive use in legacy C code
Format Time and Date Using strftime( )
Key Ingredients
Headers <ctime> Classes Functions struct tm &localtime(const time_t *time) size_t strftime(char *str, size_t maxsize, const char *fmt, const struct tm *t_ptr)
Although I recommend the use of the time_put facet for most time and date formatting, there is an alternative that can be useful in some cases: the strftime( ) function This function is defined by C and is still supported by C++ Although it lacks some of the flexibility of the time_put facet (described in an earlier recipe), it can be useful when you are displaying the time and date for the global locale This recipe shows the process
Step-by-Step
Using strftime( ) to format the date and time involves these steps: 1 Obtain a tm pointer that points to the time to be formatted For local time, this pointer can be obtained by calling localtime( ) 2 Create a char array large enough to hold the formatted output Remember to include room for the null terminator 3 To format the date and time, call strftime( ), specifying the desired formats You will also pass in a pointer to the char array from Step 2 and the tm pointer from Step 1
6:
Formatting Data
Discussion
The strftime( ) function formats the time and date, putting the result into a null-terminated string It requires the header <ctime> and has the prototype shown here: size_t strftime(char *str, size_t maxsize, const char *fmt, const struct tm *t_ptr) The time to be formatted is in a tm structure pointed to by t_ptr The format of the time and date is specified by the string pointed to by fmt The formatted output is put into the string pointed to by str The result is null-terminated A maximum of maxsize characters will be placed into str It returns the number of characters put into str (excluding the null terminator) You must ensure that str points to an array large enough to hold the maximum output Thus, it must be at least maxsize elements long Zero is returned if more than maxsize characters are needed to hold the formatted result The strftime( ) function formats the time and date based on format specifiers Each format specifier begins with the percent sign (%) and is followed by a format command The format commands are used to specify the exact way various time and date information is represented Any other characters found in fmt (the format string) are copied into str unchanged The time and date are formatted according to the global locale, which is the "C" locale by default The format commands are shown in Table 6-1 Notice that many of the commands are case-sensitive To understand how the time and date formats work, let's work through a few examples Perhaps the most commonly used format is %c, which displays the time and date using a standard format appropriate to the locale The standard time and date formats can be used separately by specifying %x (date) and %X (time) For example, this format string "%x %X" causes the standard date and time to be displayed Although the standard formats are useful, you can take full control, using whatever pieces of the time and/or date you want and in various forms For example, "%H:%M" displays the time, using only hours and minutes, in a 24-hour format Notice that the hours are separated from the minutes by a colon As explained, any character in the format string that is not part of a format specifier will be output as-is Here is a popular date format: "%A, %B %d %Y" It displays the day, month, and year using the long-name format, as in Thursday, November 01 2007 In strftime( ), the t_ptr parameter points to an object of type tm that contains what is referred to as the "broken-down" form of the time The tm structure is also defined in <ctime> One way to obtain a tm object is to call the localtime( ) function It returns a pointer to a tm structure that contains the time represented as local time You can obtain the current time by calling time( ) See Format Time and Date Using the time_put Facet for additional information on tm, localtime( ), and time( )
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