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Member Operator Functions
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When defining an operator function that acts on objects of a class that you have created, you will usually use a member function The reason is simple: Being a member of the class, the function has direct access to all of the class' members It also has a this pointer This makes it easy for the operator to act on, and possibly alter, an operand The best way to understand how to use a member function to overload an operator is to work through some examples Assume a class called three_d that encapsulates threedimensional coordinates, as shown here:
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class three_d { int x, y, z; // 3-D coordinates public: three_d() { x = y = z = 0; } three_d(int i, int j, int k) {x = i; y = j; z = k; } // };
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You can define the + operation for three_d objects by adding an operator+( ) function to the class To do so, first add its prototype to the three_d class:
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three_d operator+(three_d rh_op);
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Next, implement the function Here is one way:
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// Overload + for objects of type three_d three_d three_d::operator+(three_d rh_op) { three_d temp; tempx = x + rh_opx; tempy = y + rh_opy; tempz = z + rh_opz; return temp; }
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This function adds the coordinates of two three_d operands together and returns an object that contains the result Recall that in a member operator function, the left-hand operand invokes the operator function and is passed implicitly via this The right-hand operand is passed explicitly as an argument to the function Therefore, assuming that objA and objB are both three_d objects, in the following expression
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objA + objB
objA is passed through this and objB is passed in rh_op In the implementation of operator+( ) just shown, notice that neither operand is modified This is in keeping with the normal semantics of the + operator For example, in the expression 10 + 12, neither the 10 nor 12 is modified Although there is no rule that enforces it, in general, it is best to have your overloaded operator work in the expected way Of course, there are some operators, such as assignment or increment, in which an operand is modified by the operation In this case, you will need to modify an operand in order for your operator function to reflect the normal meaning of the operator For example, again assuming the three_d class, here is one way to implement assignment:
// Overload assignment for three_d three_d three_d::operator=(three_d rh_op) { x = rh_opx; y = rh_opy; z = rh_opz; return *this; }
Here, the coordinate values of the right-hand operand (passed in rh_op) are assigned to the left-hand operand (passed via this) Thus, the invoking object is changed to reflect the value it is being assigned Again, this is in line with the expected meaning of = Given the two operator functions just described and assuming three_d objects called objA, objB, and objC, the following statement is valid:
objC = objA + objB;
First, the addition is performed by operator+( ), with objA passed through this and objB passed to rh_op The result becomes the right-hand operand passed to operator=( ), with objC being passed through this On completion, objC will contain the sum of objA and objB, and objA and objB will be unchanged The preceding version of operator+( ) added one three_d object to another, but you can overload operator+( ) so that it adds some other type of value For example, this version of operator+( ) adds an integer to each coordinate:
// Overload + to add an integer to a three_d object three_d three_d::operator+(int rh_op) { three_d temp; tempx = x + rh_op;
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