qr code java program Herb Schildt's C++ Programming Cookbook in Java

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Herb Schildt's C++ Programming Cookbook
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Headers <vector> Classes vector Functions iterator begin( ) void clear( ) bool empty( ) const iterator end( ) iterator erase(iterator i) iterator insert(iterator i, const T &val) reverse_iterator rbegin( ) reverse_iterator rend( ) size_type size( ) const void swap(vector<T, Allocator> &ob) template <class T, class Allocator> bool operator==(const vector<T, Allocator> &leftop, const vector<T, Allocator> &rightop) template <class T, class Allocator> bool operator<(const vector<T, Allocator> &leftop, const vector<T, Allocator> &rightop) template <class T, class Allocator> bool operator>(const vector<T, Allocator> &leftop, const vector<T, Allocator> &rightop)
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All sequence containers share a common functionality For example, all allow you to add elements to the container, remove elements from the container, or cycle through the container via an iterator All support the assignment operator and the logical operators, and all sequence containers are constructed in the same way This recipe describes this common functionality, showing the basic techniques that apply to all sequence containers This recipe shows how to: Create a sequence container Add elements to the container Determine the size of the container Use an iterator to cycle through the container
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Assign one container to another Determine when one container is equivalent to another Remove elements from the container Exchange the elements in one container with another Determine if a container is empty This recipe uses the vector container class, but only those methods common to all sequence containers are employed Therefore, the same general principles can be applied to any sequence container type
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To create and use a sequence container involves these steps: 1 Create an instance of the desired container In this recipe, vector is used, but any other sequence container could be substituted 2 Add elements to the container by calling insert( ) 3 Obtain the number of elements in the container by calling size( ) 4 Determine if the container is empty (ie, contains no elements) by calling empty( ) 5 Remove elements from the container by calling erase( ) 6 Remove all elements from a container by calling clear( ) 7 Obtain an iterator to the start of the sequence by calling begin( ) Obtain an iterator to one past the end of the sequence by calling end( ) 8 For reversible sequence containers, obtain a reverse iterator to the end of the sequence by calling rbegin( ) Obtain a reverse iterator to one before the start of the sequence by calling rend( ) 9 Cycle through the elements in the container via an iterator 10 Exchange the contents of one container with another via swap( ) 11 Determine when one container is equal to, less than, or greater than another
Discussion
Although the internal operation of the STL is quite sophisticated, using the STL is actually quite easy In many ways, the hardest part of using the STL is deciding what type of container to use Each offers certain benefits and trade-offs For example, vector is very good when a random-access, array-like object is required and not too many insertions or deletions are required A list offers low-cost insertion and deletion, but trades away speedy look-ups A double-ended queue is supported by deque This recipe uses vector to demonstrate the basic sequence container operations, but the program will work with either list or deque This is one of the major advantages of the STL; all sequence containers support a base level of common functionality The template specification for vector is shown here: template <class T, class Allocator = allocator<T> > class vector
Herb Schildt's C++ Programming Cookbook
Here, T is the type of data being stored and Allocator specifies the allocator, which defaults to the standard allocator To use vector, you must include the header <vector> The vector class supports several constructors The two used in this recipe are those required by all sequence containers They are shown here: explicit vector(const Allocator &alloc = Allocator( ) ) vector(const vector<T, Allocator> &ob) The first form constructs an empty vector The second form is vector's copy constructor After a container has been created, objects can be added to it One way to do this that works for all sequence containers is to call insert( ) All sequence containers support at least three versions of insert( ) The one used here is: iterator insert(iterator i, const T &val) It inserts val into the invoking container at the point specified by i It returns an iterator to the inserted element A sequence container will automatically grow as needed when elements are added to it You can remove one or more elements from a sequence container by calling erase( ) It has at least two forms The one used by this recipe is shown here: iterator erase(iterator i) It removes the element pointed to by i It returns an iterator to the element after the one removed To remove all elements in a container, call clear( ) It is shown here: void clear( ) You can determine the number of elements in a container by calling size( ) To determine if a container is empty, call empty( ) Both functions are shown here: bool empty( ) const size_type size( ) const You can obtain an iterator to the start of the sequence by calling begin( ) An iterator to one past the last element in the sequence is obtained by calling end( ) These functions are shown here: iterator begin( ) iterator end( ) There are also const versions of these functions To declare a variable that will be used as an iterator, you must specify the iterator type of the container For example, this declares an iterator that can point to elements within a vector<double>:
vector<double>::iterator itr;
It is useful to emphasize that end( ) does not return an iterator that points to the last element in a container Instead, it returns an iterator that points to one past the last element
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