qr code java program Wo r k i n g w i t h S T L C o n t a i n e r s in Java

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Wo r k i n g w i t h S T L C o n t a i n e r s
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The end point is obtained through the use of the upper_bound( ) function Its non-const version is shown here: iterator upper_bound(const key_type &k) The upper_bound( ) function returns an iterator to the first element in the container with a key greater than k In other words, it returns an iterator to the element that comes after the ones with the key you specify Therefore, assuming some multimap called mm, to find all matches for a given key, you will use a sequence like this:
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itr = mmfind(key); if(itr != end()) { do { // ++itr; } while(itr != mmupper_bound(key)); }
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First, an attempt is made to find an element that matches the specified key If a match is found, then the do loop is entered (Recall that find( ) returns end( ) if the key is not found) Inside the loop, the iterator is incremented and its value is checked against the upper bound for the key This process continues until itr points to the upper bound You can erase all elements that share a given key by using this form of erase( ): size_type erase(const key_type &k) It removes from the multimap elements that have keys with the value k It returns the number of elements removed Two other versions of erase( ) are supported, which operate on iterators The multimap class has the same performance characteristics as map In general, inserting or deleting elements in a map takes place in logarithmic time The two exceptions are when an element is inserted at a given location and when a specific element is deleted given an iterator to that element In these cases, amortized constant time is required Insertion into a multimap invalidates no iterators or references to elements A deletion invalidates only those iterators or references to the deleted elements
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The following example demonstrates how multimap can be used to store key/value pairs in which duplicates might occur It reworks the example program used by the preceding recipe so that it uses a multimap rather than a map to store the list of names and telephone numbers
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// // // // // Demonstrating a multimap This program uses a multimap to store names and phone numbers It allows one name to be associated with more than one phone number
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#include <iostream> #include <map>
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#include <string> using namespace std; void shownumbers(const char *n, multimap<string, string> mp); int main() { multimap<string, string> phonemap; // Insert elements by using operator[] phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Tom", "Home: 555-1111")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Tom", "Work: 555-1234")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Tom", "Cell: 555-2224")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Jane", "Home: 314 555-6576")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Jane", "Cell: 314 555-8822")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Ken", "Home: 660 555-9843")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Ken", "Work: 660 555-1010")); phonemapinsert(pair<string, string>("Ken", "Cell: 217 555-9995")); // Show all phone numbers for Tom, Jane, and Ken shownumbers("Tom", phonemap); cout << endl; shownumbers("Jane", phonemap); cout << endl; shownumbers("Ken", phonemap); cout << endl; // Now remove all phone numbers for Ken: cout << "Removing all numbers for Ken\n"; int count = phonemaperase("Ken"); cout << count << " elements have been removed\n\n"; cout << "After removing Ken, attempt to find phone number fails:\n"; shownumbers("Ken", phonemap); return 0; } // Show all numbers for a given name void shownumbers(const char *n, multimap<string, string> mmp) { multimap<string, string>::iterator itr; // Find the first matching key itr = mmpfind(n); // If the key was found, then display all phone numbers // that have that key if(itr != mmpend()) { cout << "Here are the numbers for " << n << ": " << endl; do { cout << " " << itr->second << endl;
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3:
Wo r k i n g w i t h S T L C o n t a i n e r s
++itr; } while (itr != mmpupper_bound(n)); } else cout << "No entry for " << n << " found\n"; }
The output is shown here:
Here are the numbers for Tom: Home: 555-1111 Work: 555-1234 Cell: 555-2224 Here are the numbers for Jane: Home: 314 555-6576 Cell: 314 555-8822 Here are the numbers for Ken: Home: 660 555-9843 Work: 660 555-1010 Cell: 217 555-9995 Removing all numbers for Ken 3 elements have been removed After removing Ken, attempt to find phone number fails: No entry for Ken found
There are three important features of this program First, notice how insert( ) is used to insert elements with duplicate keys into phonemap, which in this program is a multimap As explained, insert( ) will always succeed (until memory is exhausted, of course) because multimap allows duplicate keys Second, notice how all elements with a specific key are found As explained in the preceding discussion, to find all matching entries for a given key, find the first key by calling find( ) Then, find subsequent matching keys by incrementing the iterator returned by find( ) until it is equal to the upper bound, as obtained from upper_bound( ) Finally, notice how this call to erase( ) removes all elements that have the key "Ken":
int count = phonemaperase("Ken");
If you want to erase a specific element that has the key "Ken", then you will need to first find the entry that you want to erase and remove it using another form of erase( ) This procedure is described in the Options and Alternatives section for this recipe
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