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Figure 19-1: Web security model components Requests come into the application server either through a Web server (if the client is a browser) or directly over Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) The security model supports both access paths in a consistent manner If the request comes through the Web server, it can use either HTTP or HTTPS If it uses HTTPS, the session is encrypted under SSL, and authentication can be achieved through a mechanism built into SSL, as described in 13 In this case, the client information can be made available to the application server if the client has been authenticated If the client is a Java client, the requests come in directly over IIOP to the application server and the EJB container As Figure 19-1 shows, the session runs over the Secure Association Service (SAS) The SAS runs on both the client and the server When a client needs information from the server, it first goes through the SAS The SAS attaches the client's security credentials to the request and adds them as part of the security context for the request before it sends that request to the server Once in the server, the SAS extracts the security context from the incoming request, authenticates the client's credentials, and passes that information to the EJB container The EJB handles authorization directly at this point
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Any resources can be secured through WebSphere, not only EJBs These include resources that reside on the Web server and that are not directly managed by the application server An example is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) resources that are part of the Web application A security plug-in is loaded into the Web server, and this plug-in uses the services in the security server to protect Web resources The container uses a component running in the application server called the security collaborator Security collaborators are responsible for providing security-related services to the containers based on information they retrieve from the security server They serve both EJB containers and Web containers, and there may be multiple collaborators on an application server Collaborators are managed by a security policy, and you will see later how to define a security policy attached to a container Web collaborators are responsible for authentication and authorization, as well as some additional services, such as logging security information A client request may have been authenticated already, either as part of a previous request within the session or using the client-side authentication feature of SSL If it is not authenticated, then the collaborator can request that the client go through an authorization process that involves providing a user name and a password EJB collaborators do not perform authentication; they focus on authorization only They rely on the SAS to perform the authentication of the Java client The EJB collaborator, however, supports a very robust delegation security model and sets the run-as identity to the client that has been authenticated by the SAS, or sets it based on other definitions that are part of the deployment descriptor Authorization attributes belong to security policies that are packaged as part of the Enterprise Archive (EAR) The security information resides in the XML deployment descriptor and is usually defined by the application assembler that is using the Application Assembly Tool (AAT) The EAR package includes the following security information: Role definitions Method permissions Run-as mode or delegation policy Authentication challenge types Data security settings The security collaborators interact with the security server that runs on the administration server When a collaborator needs authentication to be performed, it communicates with the security server and passes the authentication request The security server checks a user registry to perform the authentication WebSphere's security service supports user registries that are managed by the operating system, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) servers, or custom registries through an API The result of the authentication procedure is a set of user credentials that are then used for further requests during the session Authentication Model WebSphere supports multiple authentication mechanisms The two most important ones are LDAP and native operating system authentication The focus of these mechanisms is on eliminating the need to custom-build user registries for each application and on reusing user information in the form of both user names/passwords and more complete user profiles This not only saves programming time, it saves on total cost of ownership by reducing the number of user profiles that must be maintained within an organization Users are often defined in the native operating system registry (regardless of whether it is a UNIX system or a Windows system), and IT departments are usually uncomfortable with the need to replicate these definitions within the application, because it means having to manage password changes, for example 325
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WebSphere allows this information to be used as the application authentication mechanism Access to LDAP services for this user information, as well as for complete user profiles defined as node attributes, is steadily becoming the mainstream and is being used for enterprise applications WebSphere supports a number of authentication methods These methods are the means by which users can authenticate themselves to the WebSphere server, regardless of how the server handles the authentication in terms of the user registry They include: User names/passwords using basic HTTP authentication (that is, using the HTTP response codes for challenge) User names/passwords using an HTML form that collects user's information and delivers it to the server through a normal HTTP request Digital (X509) certificates, in which the certificate is installed or read on the user's client machine and is used to authenticate the user Figure 19-2 shows how the AAT is used to set the challenge type for a Web module In this case, you use a login form that is responsible for the actual login procedure
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Figure 19-2: Challenge type for authenticating user access to a Web application Authorization Model Most of the WebSphere security model is devoted to managing authorization WebSphere conforms to the J2EE authorization model in that it is based on creating security roles and permissions with the application assembler Figure 19-3 shows an example of how security roles are defined for a Web module in a Web application 326
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Figure 19-3: Security roles in a Web module You assign permissions to methods by defining a mapping in which roles are allowed to access resources and methods First, you define a set of security constraints, as shown in Figure 19-4 These constraints define which security roles have access, as shown in Figure 19-5, where you provide access to a Web resource for the dispatcher, as well as service manager security roles In each one of these constraints, you can create resource groups and define exactly which resources should be managed under specific security constraints, as shown in Figure 19-6 and Figure 19-7
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