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15 10 05 Voltage (pu) 00 05 10 15 000 005 010 Time (s)
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26 Voltage Imbalance Voltage imbalance (also called voltage unbalance) is sometimes defined as the maximum deviation from the average of the three-phase voltages or currents, divided by the average of the three-phase voltages or currents, expressed in percent Imbalance is more rigorously defined in the standards6,8,11,12 using symmetrical components The ratio of either the negative- or zerosequence component to the positive-sequence component can be used to specify the percent unbalance The most recent standards11 specify that the negative-sequence method be used Figure 29 shows an example of these two ratios for a 1-week trend of imbalance on a residential feeder The primary source of voltage unbalances of less than 2 percent is single-phase loads on a three-phase circuit Voltage unbalance can also be the result of blown fuses in one phase of a three-phase capacitor bank Severe voltage unbalance (greater than 5 percent) can result from single-phasing conditions 27 Waveform Distortion Waveform distortion is defined as a steady-state deviation from an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized by the spectral content of the deviation
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There are five primary types of waveform distortion:
DC offset Harmonics Interharmonics Notching Noise
DC offset The presence of a dc voltage or current in an ac power system
is termed dc offset This can occur as the result of a geomagnetic disturbance or asymmetry of electronic power converters Incandescent light bulb life extenders, for example, may consist of diodes that reduce the rms voltage supplied to the light bulb by half-wave rectification Direct current in ac networks can have a detrimental effect by biasing transformer cores so they saturate in normal operation This causes additional heating and loss of transformer life Direct current may also cause the electrolytic erosion of grounding electrodes and other connectors
Harmonics Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies that are integer multiples of the frequency at which the sup-
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Terms and Definitions 26 Two
ply system is designed to operate (termed the fundamental frequency; usually 50 or 60 Hz)6 Periodically distorted waveforms can be decomposed into a sum of the fundamental frequency and the harmonics Harmonic distortion originates in the nonlinear characteristics of devices and loads on the power system Harmonic distortion levels are described by the complete harmonic spectrum with magnitudes and phase angles of each individual harmonic component It is also common to use a single quantity, the total harmonic distortion (THD), as a measure of the effective value of harmonic distortion Figure 210 illustrates the waveform and harmonic spectrum for a typical adjustable-speed-drive (ASD) input current Current distortion levels can be characterized by a THD value, as previously described, but this can often be misleading For example, many
PWMASD45>VSRCA-BUSA (Type 9) 70 Max: 50 Current (A) 30 10 10 30 50 40 50 60 Time (ms) 70 80 Min: Avg: Abs: RMS: CF : FF : 313907 171704 335332 313907 643862 487537 192007
DERIVED>VSRCA-BUSA (Type 9)(2) Freq: 60 194713 410054 798431 210448 373698 427213 899061
15 Current (A) ASD Input Current Spectrum 10
Fund: THD : RMSh: RMS : ASUM: TIF : IT :
0 0 600 Frequency (Hz)
Current waveform and harmonic spectrum for an ASD input current
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Terms and Definitions Terms and Definitions 27
adjustable-speed drives will exhibit high THD values for the input current when they are operating at very light loads This is not necessarily a significant concern because the magnitude of harmonic current is low, even though its relative distortion is high To handle this concern for characterizing harmonic currents in a consistent fashion, IEEE Standard 519-1992 defines another term, the total demand distortion (TDD) This term is the same as the total harmonic distortion except that the distortion is expressed as a percent of some rated load current rather than as a percent of the fundamental current magnitude at the instant of measurement IEEE Standard 519-1992 provides guidelines for harmonic current and voltage distortion levels on distribution and transmission circuits
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