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for best results, power factor correction should be located as close to the load as possible However, this may not be the most economical solution or even the best engineering solution, due to the interaction of harmonics and capacitors Often, capacitors will be installed with large induction motors (C3 in Fig 711) This allows the capacitor and motor to be switched as a unit Large plants with extensive distribution systems often install capacitors at the primary voltage bus (C1) when utility billing encourages power factor correction Many times, however, power factor correction and harmonic distortion reduction must be accomplished with the same capacitors Location of larger harmonic filters on the main distribution bus (C2) provides the required compensation and a low-impedance path for harmonic currents to flow, keeping the harmonic currents off the utility system One disadvantage of placing capacitors only at the utilization or main distribution bus is that there is no reduction of current and line losses within the plant Loss and current reduction are achieved when the capacitors (C4) are distributed throughout the system Some industrial end users install capacitors at the motor control centers, which is often more economical than putting the capacitors on each motor The capacitors controls can be tied in with the motor controls so that the capacitors are switched when needed Another disadvantage is related to harmonic performance The main distribution bus often has a high X/R ratio, and if the capacitor installation results in harmonic resonance, very high harmonic voltages and
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UTILIZATION OR DISTRIBUTION BUS
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C3 C2 M DISTRIBUTED BUS
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Figure 711 Location of power factor correction
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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currents can result This is the most common cause of damage from harmonics in industrial plants If there is sufficient resistance in the cables to the loads, a distributed capacitor application may have some natural suppression of harmonic resonance On the other hand, the resonance may be more convenient to alleviate when the offending capacitors are in one location Thus, the optimal design for capacitor compensation is often a compromise between conflicting objectives
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752 Voltage rise
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The voltage rise from placing capacitors on an inductive circuit is a two-edged sword from the power quality standpoint If the voltage is low, then the capacitors provide an increase to bring the voltage back into tolerable limits However, if the capacitors are left energized when the load is turned off, the voltage can rise too high, resulting in a sustained overvoltage The voltage rise by the end user from the installation of capacitors is approximated from % V where % V kvarcap kVAtx Ztx kvarcap Ztx (%) kVAtx
percent voltage rise capacitor bank rating step-down transformer rating step-down transformer impedance, %
This formula assumes that the transformer is the bulk of the total impedance of the power system up to the point at which the capacitor is applied As mentioned, one power quality problem that arises is that the voltage rises too high when the capacitors remain energized at low load levels One common symptom of this is loud humming in the supply transformer and, in some cases, overheating due to overexcitation of the core Another symptom is the loss of excessive numbers of incandescant light bulbs coincident with the installation of a capacitor bank Thus, this formula should be applied to investigate whether it is feasible to leave the capacitors energized If not, some control strategy must be devised to switch the capacitors off at light loads
753 Reduction in power system losses
The reduction in power system losses is estimated from % lossreduction 100 1 pforiginal pfcorrected
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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