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70 Voltage Change (in Volts) on 120-V System 60
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Figure 714 General flicker curve
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Long-Duration Voltage Variations 318 Seven
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Flicker can be separated into two types: cyclic and noncyclic Cyclic flicker is a result of periodic voltage fluctuations on the system, while noncyclic is a result of occasional voltage fluctuations An example of sinusoidal-cyclic flicker is shown in Fig 715 This type of flicker is simply amplitude modulation where the main signal (60 Hz for North America) is the carrier signal and flicker is the modulating signal Flicker signals are usually specified as a percentage of the normal operating voltage By using a percentage, the flicker signal is independent of peak, peak-to-peak, rms, line-to-neutral, etc Typically, percent voltage modulation is expressed by Percent voltage modulation where Vmax Vmin V0 Vmax V0 Vmin 100%
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maximum value of modulated signal minimum value of modulated signal average value of normal operating voltage
The usual method for expressing flicker is similar to that of percent voltage modulation It is usually expressed as a percent of the total change in voltage with respect to the average voltage ( V/V) over a certain period of time
200 150 100 50 Voltage (V) 0 50 100 150 200 0000 0058 0117 0175 0233 0292 0350 0408 0467 0525 0583 0642 0700 0758 0817 0875 0933
Time (s)
Figure 715 Example flicker waveform
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Long-Duration Voltage Variations Long-Duration Voltage Variations 319
The frequency content of flicker is extremely important in determining whether or not flicker levels are observable (or objectionable) Describing the frequency content of the flicker signal in terms of modulation would mean that the flicker frequency is essentially the frequency of the modulating signal The typical frequency range of observable flicker is from 05 to 300 Hz, with observable magnitudes starting at less than 10 percent As shown in Fig 714, the human eye is more sensitive to luminance fluctuations in the 5- to 10-Hz range As the frequency of flicker increases or decreases away from this range, the human eye generally becomes more tolerable of fluctuations One issue that was not considered in the development of the traditional flicker curve is that of multiple flicker signals Generally, most flicker-producing loads contain multiple flicker signals (of varying magnitudes and frequencies), thus making it very difficult to accurately quantify flicker using flicker curves
771 Sources of flicker
Typically, flicker occurs on systems that are weak relative to the amount of power required by the load, resulting in a low short-circuit ratio This, in combination with considerable variations in current over a short period of time, results in flicker As the load increases, the current in the line increases, thus increasing the voltage drop across the line This phenomenon results in a sudden reduction in bus voltage Depending upon the change in magnitude of voltage and frequency of occurrence, this could result in observable amounts of flicker If a lighting load were connected to the system in relatively close proximity to the fluctuating load, observers could see this as a dimming of the lights A common situation, which could result in flicker, would be a large industrial plant located at the end of a weak distribution feeder Whether the resulting voltage fluctuations cause observable or objectionable flicker is dependent upon the following parameters:
Size (VA) of potential flicker-producing source System impedance (stiffness of utility) Frequency of resulting voltage fluctuations
A common load that can often cause flicker is an electric arc furnace (EAF) EAFs are nonlinear, time-varying loads that often cause large voltage fluctuations and harmonic distortion Most of the large current fluctuations occur at the beginning of the melting cycle During this period, pieces of scrap steel can actually bridge the gap between the electrodes, resulting in a highly reactive short circuit on the secondary side
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