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The 1994 agreement specified that voltage sags would be included in the compensation scheme at a later date The delay was considered reasonable because Detroit Edison had no means in place for taking statistically accurate power quality measurements Installations of power quality monitors began in 1995 with a total of 138 monitors installed at the SMC locations The utility and the customers finalized the voltage sag agreement ahead of schedule at the insistence of the customers in August 1998, having only about 2 years of measurements for the basis of the initial sag targets It would have been preferable to have about 3 years to establish the targets The sag agreement was made retroactive to January 1, 1998 The monitors are connected to measure phase-to-ground voltages at the 132-kV bus and phase-to-phase voltages at the 48-kV buses Each power quality monitor is automatically polled several times a day using
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Power Quality Benchmarking Power Quality Benchmarking 351
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three modems, each dedicated to one of the three customers The measurements are then stored in the main monitoring database on a server A workstation running Electrotek s PQView program queries the database and imports the measurements into a database on a Web server The rms voltage variations are characterized and the voltage sag indices computed The 1998 SMC amendment states five rules that establish a subset of sags that qualify for payment 1 The rms voltage on any of the three phases must drop below 075 pu There is no minimum duration for qualifying voltage sags; all durations are eligible The threshold was established based on the ITI curve and discussions with the customers Actual experience is not a factor in the sag qualification 2 Voltage sags that are caused by the customer are excluded from the qualifying sag list 3 Voltage sags that are measured on a nonloaded feeder are not qualifying This is automatically determined in the PQView program from the maximum load current Rules 2 and 3 are in place to ensure that the performance is only evaluated at the PCC 4 Only the worst voltage sag (lowest rms voltage) in a 15-min interval at each location can qualify The 15-min interval begins when the first sag in a chronological list of sags is detected and ends when either the last sag in the interval is detected or at a point 15 min after the first Voltage sags that occur after that 15-min interval are considered part of the next interval and are assessed separately This type of processing is called 15-min temporal aggregation with spatial aggregation by location 5 If a voltage interruption is measured during a 15-min interval, then any voltage sags that are also measured at the location will not qualify According to Detloff and Sabin,14 approximately 20 percent of all the voltage sags measured by the Detroit Edison power quality monitoring system (nonaggregated) fall below 075 pu Only about 8 percent of the nonaggregated sags qualify after applying the five sag rules and for which sag scores are computed
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Sag score definition The sag score is the average per-unit voltage lost
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by each of the three phase voltages for the lowest qualifying voltage sag within a 15-min interval It is defined by Eq (87): Sag score 1 VA VB 3 VC (87)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Power Quality Benchmarking 352 Eight
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For interruptions, the sag score is defined to be zero to prevent overlap with the administration of voltage interruptions If any of the phase voltages are greater than 1 pu because of a neutral shift during a voltage sag, then each is set to 1 pu before the computation of the sag score These two policies confine scores to the range 00833 to 1 The minimum sag score of 00833 corresponds to a condition where the voltage on one phase is 075 pu, which is the threshold for a qualifying voltage sag, and the other two phase voltages are set to 1 pu Detloff and Sabin reported that the average sag score from January 1, 1998, until their paper was prepared in 2000 was 031, with 87 percent of the sag scores being less than or equal to 050
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