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3 Substation PQ monitors on main three-phase feeder branches
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873 Estimating rms variations
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Voltage sags and interruptions are almost always due to short-circuit faults Therefore, the procedure for estimating voltages due to rms variations is basically to find a fault on the feeder that produces voltages and currents that most closely match what was measured on the few existing monitors Then the voltages are computed at all other buses of interest and assumed to be what would have been measured if a monitor had been present Of particular interest are the voltages on the load side of the service transformers One can always employ a brute force approach for searching out a fault location on the feeder There may be no alternative if there is only one monitor on the system, and today s fast computers actually make this a practical approach in many cases If there is more than one monitor, one can program some intelligence into the search algorithm to limit the search area This is illustrated in Fig 812 By observing the currents measured by the monitors, it is determined that the fault is downline from the first two monitors on the feeder Therefore, the search area is restricted to the shaded area Some new types of PQ monitoring equipment can provide an estimate of the distance to the fault This can be quite helpful in providing a starting point for the simulation Customer-owned monitors can be quite helpful in identifying the probable fault location The load current data are probably not useful, but the measured voltages can provide intelligence to improve the estimation While the customer-side monitors can be very helpful, there are a number of potential problems with respect to rms variations: 1 The transformer connection, if not grounded wye-wye, may alter the perception of the voltages seen on the primary feeder and, therefore, by other customers Thus, the monitor values do not represent the primary system voltage An effective rms variation estimator would accommodate various transformer connections 2 The phasing may not agree with the utility-side monitoring This is a constant bookkeeping problem End users frequently alter their installations, and any type of automatic estimating system for computing PQ indices must have a facility for periodically correcting the phasing 3 The transformer impedance will alter the voltage measured for certain events 4 The current measured at the end-user site represents only the current into that individual load This will be of limited use in determining the state of the feeder for PQ indices 5 There is no direct communications link to get the data back to a central site for timely processing
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Limit search to this area Monitors seeing fault current
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N O
SEGMENT FEEDER PQ MONITOR CURRENT MONITOR
BREAKER
RECLOSER
FUSE CUSTOMER-SIDE PQ MONITOR
Figure 812 Intelligently limiting the search area for possible fault locations
874 Simulation engine requirements
The simulation engine for performing this type of PQ state estimation has requirements similar to that of the fault simulator used to estimate voltage sags for PQ planning (see Sec 88) One of the most critical pieces of information is what the voltage looks like on the end-user side of the service transformer In the United States, this transformer can have one of several different connections Therefore, the ability to model a three-phase feeder in complete detail during fault conditions is imperative Some representation of load is also called for However, traditional power flow models will be inadequate once the voltage drops below 90 percent or so Another feature is the ability to scan through a range of possible fault locations and magnitudes quickly There may be hundreds of fault events per year to be evaluated Although modern computers are becoming very fast, combining this need with the detailed circuit modDownloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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