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tive than the same amount of DG installed in the substation Unfortunately, this generation is usually customer-owned and distribution planners are reluctant to rely on it for capacity The application of DG to relieve feeder capacity constraints is illustrated in Fig 933 The feeder load has grown to where it exceeds a limit on the feeder This limit could be imposed by either current ratings on lines or switchgear It could also be imposed by bus voltage limits There is DG on the feeder at a location where it can actually relieve the constraint and is dispatched near the daily peak to help serve the load The straightforward message of the figure is that the load that would otherwise have to be curtailed can now be served Therefore, the reliability has been improved This application is becoming more common as a means to defer expansion of the wire-based power delivery infrastructure The generation might be leased for a peak load period However, it is more common to offer capacity credits to customers located in appropriate areas to use their backup generation for the benefit of the utility system If there are no customers with DG in the area, utilities may lease space to connect generation or, depending on regulatory rules, may provide some incentives for customers to add backup generation There is by no means universal agreement that this is a permanent solution to the reliability problem When utility planners are shown Fig 933, most will concede the obvious, but not necessarily agree that this situation represents an improvement in reliability Three of the stronger arguments are 1 If the feeder goes out, only the customer with the DG sees an improvement in reliability There is no noticeable change in the service reliability indices
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DG Sited to Provide Feeder Relief
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Feeder Limit
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Figure 933 DG sited to relieve feeder overload constraint
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Distributed Generation and Power Quality Distributed Generation and Power Quality 425
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2 Customer generation cannot be relied upon to start when needed Thus, the reliability cannot be expected to improve 3 Using customer-owned generation in this fashion masks the true load growth Investment in wire facilities lags behind demand, increasing the risk that the distribution system will eventually not be able to serve the load It should also be noted that the capacity relief benefit is nullified when the distribution system is upgraded and no longer has a constraint Thus, capacity credits offered for this application generally have a short term ranging from 6 months to 1 year If one had to choose a location on the distribution feeder, where should the DG be located The optimal DG siting problem is similar to the optimal siting problem for shunt capacitor banks Many of the same algorithms can be used with the chief difference being that the object being added produces watts in addition to vars Some of the same rules of thumb also apply For example, if the load is uniformly distributed along the feeder, the optimal point for loss reduction and capacity relief is approximately two-thirds of the way down the main feeder When there are more generators to consider, the problem requires computer programs for analysis The utility does not generally have a choice in the location of feederconnected DG The location is given for customer-owned generation, and the problem is to determine if the location has any capacity-related value to the power delivery system Optimal siting algorithms can be employed to evaluate the relative value of alternative sites One measure of the value of DG in a location is the additional amount of load that can be served relative to the size of the DG Transmission networks are very complex systems that are sometimes constrained by one small area that affects a large geographical area A relatively small amount of load reduction in the constrained area allows several times that amount of load to be served by the system This effect can also be seen on distribution feeders Because of the simple, radial structure of most feeders, there is generally not a constraint so severe that DG application will allow the serving of additional load several times greater than the size of the generator However, there can be a multiplying effect as illustrated in Fig 934 This example assumes that the constraint is on the feeder rather than on the substation If 1 MW of generation were placed in the substation, no additional load could be served on the feeder because no feeder relief has been achieved However, if there is a good site on the feeder, the total feeder load often can grow by as much as 14 MW This is a typical maximum value for this measure of DG benefit on radial distribution feeders
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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