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Power Quality Monitoring 484 Eleven
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implement a fast Fourier transform on the demodulated signal (flicker signal only) to extract the various frequencies and magnitudes found in the data These data would then be compared to a flicker curve Although similar to using the rms strip charts, this method more accurately quantifies the data measured due to the magnitude and frequency of the flicker being known The downside to implementing this method is associated with quantifying flicker levels when the flicker-producing load contains multiple flicker signals Some instruments compensate for this by reporting only the dominant frequency and discarding the rest
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Flicker meters Because of the complexity of quantifying flicker levels that are based upon human perception, the most comprehensive approach to measuring flicker is to use flicker meters A flicker meter is essentially a device that demodulates the flicker signal, weights it according to established flicker curves, and performs statistical analysis on the processed data Generally, these meters can be divided up into three sections In the first section the input waveform is demodulated, thus removing the carrier signal As a result of the demodulator, a dc offset and higher-frequency terms (sidebands) are produced The second section removes these unwanted terms using filters, thus leaving only the modulating (flicker) signal remaining The second section also consists of filters that weight the modulating signal according to the particular meter specifications The last section usually consists of a statistical analysis of the measured flicker The most established method for doing this is described in IEC Standard 61000-4-158 The IEC flicker meter consists of five blocks, which are shown in Fig 1118 Block 1 is an input voltage adapter that scales the input half-cycle rms value to an internal reference level This allows flicker measurements to be made based upon a percent ratio rather than be dependent upon the input carrier voltage level Block 2 is simply a squaring demodulator that squares the input to separate the voltage fluctuation (modulating signal) from the main voltage signal (carrier signal), thus simulating the behavior of the incandescent lamp Block 3 consists of multiple filters that serve to filter out unwanted frequencies produced from the demodulator and also to weight the input signal according to the incandescent lamp eye-brain response The basic transfer function for the weighting filter is
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Block 1 dB 1 3 1storder Squaring multiplier sliding mean filter
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Block 3
Block 4
Block 5
Input transformer
Detector and gain control
Demodulator with squaring multiplier 05 Weighting filters Squaring and smoothing 35 Hz 0 88 Hz
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Input voltage adaptor Signal generator for calibration checking
Range selector V 05 V 10 20 50 100 200
A/D converter 64 level Output Sampling classifier interfaces rate 50 Hz Programming of short and long observation periods Statistical evaluation of flicker level
RMS meter Output 2: Weighted voltage fluctuation
Square rooter
1-min integrator Output 3: Output 4: Output 5: Range Short time Recording selection integration
Output and data display and recording
Output 1: Half-cycle rms voltage indication
Figure 1118 Diagram of the IEC flicker meter
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Power Quality Monitoring 486 Eleven
(See IEC Standard 61000-4-15 for a description of the variables used above) Block 4 consists of a squaring multiplier and sliding mean filter The voltage signal is squared to simulate the nonlinear eye-brain response, while the sliding mean filter averages the signal to simulate the shortterm storage effect of the brain The output of this block is considered to be the instantaneous flicker level A level of 1 on the output of this block corresponds to perceptible flicker Block 5 consists of a statistical analysis of the instantaneous flicker level The output of block 4 is divided into suitable classes, thus creating a histogram A probability density function is created based upon each class, and from this a cumulative distribution function can be formed Flicker level evaluation can be divided into two categories, shortterm and long-term Short-term evaluation of flicker severity PST is based upon an observation period of 10 min This period is based upon assessing disturbances with a short duty cycle or those that produce continuous fluctuations PST can be found using the equation P ST 00314P01 00525P 1s 00657P3s 028P 10s 008P50s
where the percentages P01, P1s, P3s, P10s, and P50s are the flicker levels that are exceeded 01, 10, 30, 100, and 500 percent of the time, respectively These values are taken from the cumulative distribution curve discussed previously A PST of 10 on the output of block 5 represents the objectionable (or irritable) limit of flicker For cases where the duty cycle is long or variable, such as in arc furnaces, or disturbances on the system that are caused by multiple loads operating simultaneously, the need for the long-term assessment of flicker severity arises Therefore, the long-term flicker severity PLT is derived from PST using the equation
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