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Monitoring of power quality on power systems often requires transducers to obtain acceptable voltage and current signal levels Voltage monitoring on secondary systems can usually be performed with direct connections, but even these locations require current transformers (CTs) for the current signal Many power quality monitoring instruments are designed for input voltages up to 600 V rms and current inputs up to 5 A rms Voltage and current transducers must be selected to provide these signal levels Two important concerns must be addressed in selecting transducers: 1 Signal levels Signal levels should use the full scale of the instrument without distorting or clipping the desired signal
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Power Quality Monitoring Power Quality Monitoring 489
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Figure 1120 A smart power quality monitoring system it
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2 Frequency response This is particularly important for transient and harmonic distortion monitoring, where high-frequency signals are particularly important These concerns and transducer installation considerations will now be discussed
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Signal levels Careful consideration to sizing of voltage transducers
(VTs) and CTs is required to take advantage of the full resolution of the instrument without clipping the measured signal Improper sizing can result in damage to the transducer or monitoring instrument Digital monitoring instruments incorporate the use of analog-to-digital (A/D) converters These A/D boards convert the analog signal received by the instrument from the transducers into a digital signal for processing To obtain the most accurate representation of the signal being monitored, it is important to use as much of the full range of the A/D board as possible The noise level of a typical A/D board is approximately 33 percent of the full-scale bit value (5 bits for a 16-bit A/D board) Therefore, as a general rule, the signal that is input to the instrument should never be less than one-eighth of the full-scale value so that it is well above the noise level of the A/D board This can be accomplished by selecting the proper transducers
Voltage transducers VTs should be sized to prevent measured disturbances from inducing saturation in the VT For transients, this generally requires that the knee point of the transducer saturation curve be at least 200 percent of nominal system voltage
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Power Quality Monitoring 490 Eleven
Example 1 When monitoring on a 1247-kV distribution feeder and measuring line-to-ground, the nominal voltage across the primary of the voltage transducer will be 7200 V rms A VT ratio of 60:1 will produce an output voltage on the VT of 120 V rms (170 V peak) for a 7200-V rms input Therefore, if the full-range value of the instrument is 600 V rms and the instrument incorporates a 16-bit A/D board, 13 bits of the A/D board will be used It is always good practice to incorporate some allowance in the calculations for overvoltage conditions The steady-state voltage should not be right at the full-scale value of the monitoring instrument If an overvoltage occurred, the signal would be clipped by the A/D board, and the measurement would be useless Allowing for a 200 percent overvoltage is suggested This can be accomplished by changing the input scale on the instrument, or sizing the VT accordingly Current transducers Selecting the proper transducer for currents is more difficult The current in any system changes more often and with greater magnitude than the voltage Most power quality instrument manufacturers supply CTs with their equipment These CTs come in a wide range of sizes to accommodate different load levels The CTs are usually rated for maximum continuous load current The proper CT current rating and turns ratio depend on the measurement objective If fault or inrush currents are of concern, the CT must be sized in the range of 20 to 30 times normal load current This will result in low resolution of the load currents and an inability to accurately characterize load current harmonics If harmonics and load characterization are important, CTs should be selected to accurately characterize load currents This permits evaluation of load response to system voltage variations and accurate calculation of load current harmonics Example 2 The desired current signal to the monitoring instrument is 1 to 2 A rms Assuming a 1-A value, the optimum CT ratio for an average feeder current of 120 A rms is 120:1 Manufacturer s data commonly list a secondary current base of 5 A to describe CT turns ratios rather than 1 A The primary rating for a CT with a 5-A secondary rating is calculated as follows:
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