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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 52 Three
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Example of modeling the transmission system in a short-circuit program for calculation of the area of vulnerability
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The relationships in Table 31 illustrate the fact that a single-lineto-ground fault on the primary of a delta-wye grounded transformer does not result in zero voltage on any of the phase-to-ground or phase-to-phase voltages on the secondary of the transformer The magnitude of the lowest secondary voltage depends on how the equipment is connected:
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Equipment connected line-to-line would experience a minimum voltage of 33 percent Equipment connected line-to-neutral would experience a minimum voltage of 58 percent
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This illustrates the importance of both transformer connections and the equipment connections in determining the actual voltage that equipment will experience during a fault on the supply system Math Bollen16 developed the concept of voltage sag types to describe the different voltage sag characteristics that can be experienced at the end-user level for different fault conditions and system configurations The five types that can commonly be experienced are illustrated in Fig 38 These fault types can be used to conveniently summarize the
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions Voltage Sags and Interruptions Transformer Secondary Voltages with a Single-Line-to-Ground Fault on the Primary
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TABLE 31
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Transformer connection (primary/secondary)
Phase-to-phase Vab Vbc Vca 058 100 058
Phase-to-neutral Van Vbn Vcn 000 100 100
Phasor diagram
058 100 058
033 088 088
033 088 088
088 088 033
058 100 058
Phase Shift
Number of Phases 1 Sag Type D 2 Sag Type C Two-phase sag, phase shift Sag Type E Two-phase sag, no phase shift 3 Note: Three-phase sags should lead to relatively balanced conditions; therefore, sag type A is a sufficient characterization for all three-phase sags Sag Type A Three-phase sag
Angle
One-phase sag, phase shift Sag Type B
None
One-phase sag, no phase shift
Voltage sag types at end-use equipment that result from different types of faults and transformer connections
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 54 Three
expected performance at a customer location for different types of faults on the supply system Table 32 is an example of an area of vulnerability listing giving all the fault locations that can result in voltage sags below 80 percent at the customer equipment (in this case a customer with equipment connected line-to-line and supplied through one delta-wye transformer from the transmission system Tennessee 132-kV bus) The actual expected performance is then determined by combining the area of vulnerability with the expected number of faults within this area of vulnerability The fault performance is usually described in terms of faults per 100 miles/year (mi/yr) Most utilities maintain statistics of fault performance at all the different transmission voltages These systemwide statistics can be used along with the area of vulnerability to estimate the actual expected voltage sag performance Figure 39 gives an example of this type of analysis The figure shows the expected number of voltage sags per year at the customer equipment due to transmission system faults The performance is broken down into the different sag types because the equipment sensitivity may be different for sags that affect all three phases versus sags that only affect one or two phases
324 Utility distribution system sag performance evaluation
Customers that are supplied at distribution voltage levels are impacted by faults on both the transmission system and the distribution system The analysis at the distribution level must also include momentary interruptions caused by the operation of protective devices to clear the faults7 These interruptions will most likely trip out sensitive equipment The example presented in this section illustrates data requirements and computation procedures for evaluating the expected voltage sag and momentary interruption performance The overall voltage sag performance at an end-user facility is the total of the expected voltage sag performance from the transmission and distribution systems Figure 310 shows a typical distribution system with multiple feeders and fused branches, and protective devices The utility protection scheme plays an important role in the voltage sag and momentary interruption performance The critical information needed to compute voltage sag performance can be summarized as follows:
Number of feeders supplied from the substation Average feeder length Average feeder reactance Short-circuit equivalent reactance at the substation
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