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3 Protection for large groups of loads or whole facilities at the low-voltage level Sometimes such a large portion of the facility is critical or needs protection that it is reasonable to consider protecting large groups of loads at a convenient location (usually the service entrance) New technologies are available for consideration when large groups of loads need protection 4 Protection at the medium-voltage level or on the supply system If the whole facility needs protection or improved power quality, solutions at the medium-voltage level can be considered The size ranges in these categories are quite arbitrary, and many of the technologies can be applied over a wider range of sizes The following sections describe the major technologies available and the levels where they can be applied
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341 Ferroresonant transformers
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Ferroresonant transformers, also called constant-voltage transformers (CVTs), can handle most voltage sag conditions (See Fig 313) CVTs are especially attractive for constant, low-power loads Variable loads, especially with high inrush currents, present more of a problem for CVTs because of the tuned circuit on the output Ferroresonant transformers are basically 1:1 transformers which are excited high on their saturation curves, thereby providing an output voltage which is not significantly affected by input voltage variations A typical ferroresonant transformer schematic circuit diagram is shown in Fig 314 Figure 315 shows the voltage sag ride-through improvement of a process controller fed from a 120-VA ferroresonant transformer With the CVT, the process controller can ride through a voltage sag down to 30 percent of nominal, as opposed to 82 percent without one Notice how the ride-through capability is held constant at a certain level The reason for this is the small power requirement of the process controller, only 15 VA Ferroresonant transformers should be sized significantly larger than the load Figure 316 shows the allowable voltage sag as a percentage of nominal voltage (that will result in at least 90 percent voltage on the CVT output) versus ferroresonant transformer loading, as specified by one manufacturer At 25 percent of loading, the allowable voltage sag is 30 percent of nominal, which means that the CVT will output over 90 percent normal voltage as long as the input voltage is above 30 percent This is important since the plant voltage rarely falls below 30 percent of nominal during voltage sag conditions As the loading is increased, the corresponding ride-through capability is reduced, and when the ferroresonant transformer is overloaded (eg, 150 percent loading), the voltage will collapse to zero
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 62 Three
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Examples of commercially available constant-voltage transformers (CVTs) (wwwsola-hevi-dutycom)
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CAPACITOR
LOAD
NEUTRALIZING WINDING
SECONDARY WINDING
Schematic of ferroresonant constant-voltage transformer
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Voltage Sags and Interruptions Voltage Sags and Interruptions 63
Single Loop Process Controller 100 wout/Ferro Xfmr 80 60 Percent Voltage 40 20 0 01
CBEMA w/Ferro Xfmr
1 Time in Cycles
Voltage sag improvement with ferroresonant transformer 80 70 60
50 Input Voltage Minimum % 40 30 20 10 0 25 50 75 Percent Loading of Ferroresonant Transformer 100
Voltage sag versus ferroresonant transformer loading
342 Magnetic synthesizers
Magnetic synthesizers use a similar operating principle to CVTs except they are three-phase devices and take advantage of the three-phase magnetics to provide improved voltage sag support and regulation for three-phase loads They are applicable over a size range from about 15 to 200 kVA and are typically applied for process loads of larger computer systems where voltage sags or steady-state voltage variations are important issues A block diagram of the process is shown in Fig 317 Energy transfer and line isolation are accomplished through the use of nonlinear chokes This eliminates problems such as line noise The ac output waveforms are built by combining distinct voltage pulses
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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