Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) devices in Software

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349 Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) devices
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An SMES device can be used to alleviate voltage sags and brief interruptions2 The energy storage in an SMES-based system is provided by the electric energy stored in the current flowing in a superconducting magnet Since the coil is lossless, the energy can be released almost instantaneously Through voltage regulator and inverter banks, this energy can be injected into the protected electrical system in less than 1 cycle to compensate for the missing voltage during a voltage sag event
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 70 Three
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The SMES-based system has several advantages over battery-based UPS systems: 1 SMES-based systems have a much smaller footprint than batteries for the same energy storage and power delivery capability13 2 The stored energy can be delivered to the protected system more quickly 3 The SMES system has virtually unlimited discharge and charge duty cycles The discharge and recharge cycles can be performed thousands of times without any degradation to the superconducting magnet The recharge cycle is typically less than 90 s from full discharge Figure 326 shows the functional block diagram of a common system It consists of a superconducting magnet, voltage regulators, capacitor banks, a dc-to-dc converter, dc breakers, inverter modules, sensing and control equipment, and a series-injection transformer The superconducting magnet is constructed of a niobium titanium (NbTi) conductor and is cooled to approximately 42 kelvin (K) by liquid helium The cryogenic refrigeration system is based on a two-stage recondenser The magnet electrical leads use high-temperature superconductor (HTS) connections to the voltage regulator and controls The magnet might typically store about 3 megajoules (MJ)
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Voltage Regulator Capacitor DC-DC and Controls Bank Inverter = = ~ = Magnet Power Supply Superconductor Magnet
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Inverter Module ~ = Sensing and Control
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Series-Injection Transformer
Plant Load Padmount
Typical power quality voltage regulator (PQ-VR) functional block diagram (Courtesy of American Superconductor, Inc)
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Voltage Sags and Interruptions Voltage Sags and Interruptions 71
In the example system shown, energy released from the SMES passes through a current-to-voltage converter to charge a 14-microfarad (mF) dc capacitor bank to 2500 Vdc The voltage regulator keeps the dc voltage at its nominal value and also provides protection control to the SMES The dc-to-dc converter reduces the dc voltage down to 750 Vdc The inverter subsystem module consists of six single-phase inverter bridges Two IGBT inverter bridges rated 450 amperes (A) rms are paralleled in each phase to provide a total rating of 900 A per phase The switching scheme for the inverter is based on the pulse-width modulation (PWM) approach where the carrier signal is a sine-triangle with a frequency of 4 kHz15 A typical SMES system can protect loads of up to 8 MVA for voltage sags as low as 025 pu It can provide up to 10 s of voltage sag ridethrough depending on load size Figure 327 shows an example where the grid voltage experiences a voltage sag of 06 pu for approximately 7 cycles The voltage at the protected load remains virtually unchanged at its prefault value
3410 Static transfer switches and fast transfer switches
There are a number of alternatives for protection of an entire facility that may be sensitive to voltage sags These include dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) and UPS systems that use technology similar to the systems described previously but applied at the medium-voltage level
05 Voltage (per unit)
05 Grid voltage Load voltage 1 006
016 018 Time (ms)
SMES-based system providing ride-through during voltage sag event
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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