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TABLE 36
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Effectiveness of the Power Quality Improvement Options for a Particular Example Case* Sags, % Interruption, % 0 0 70 100 100 80 100 80 70 100 100 100 70 60 20 20 70 90 Minimum voltage below 50% Minimum voltage between between 50% and 70% Minimum voltage between 70% and 90% 100 100 100 100 50 40 Voltage Sags and Interruptions
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CVT (controls) Dynamic sag corrector/DVR Flywheel ride-through technologies UPS (battery ride-through technologies) Static switch Fast transfer switch
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*The entries in this table represent the percentage of voltage sags or interruptions in each category that are corrected to levels that will no longer cause equipment impacts in the facility
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 78 Three
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$700,000 $600,000 $500,000 $400,000 $300,000 $200,000 $100,000 $0
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Solution Cost PQ Cost
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Base Case
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CVTs for Series Flywheel UPS for Controls Compensators or SMES Machines Only for Individual Protection of Machines Machines
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Static Transfer Switch
Fast Transfer Switch (Vacuum)
Example of comparing solution alternatives with the base case using total annualized costs
It is interesting to note that all the options reduce the total annual costs (in other words, any of these options would have a net benefit to the facility with the assumed interest rate and lifetime when compared to the existing conditions) It is also interesting that the best solution in this case involves applying equipment on the utility side (fast transfer switch) However, this has a major assumption that a backup feeder would be available and that there would be no charge from the utility for providing a connection to this backup feeder except for the equipment and operating costs More commonly, the solution would be implemented in the facility and either a dynamic sag corrector or flywheel-based standby power supply might make sense for protecting the 2 MW of sensitive loads In this case, protecting just the controls with CVTs does not provide the best solution because the machines themselves are sensitive to voltage sags 36 Motor-Starting Sags Motors have the undesirable effect of drawing several times their full load current while starting This large current will, by flowing through system impedances, cause a voltage sag which may dim lights, cause
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions Voltage Sags and Interruptions 79
contactors to drop out, and disrupt sensitive equipment The situation is made worse by an extremely poor starting displacement factor usually in the range of 15 to 30 percent The time required for the motor to accelerate to rated speed increases with the magnitude of the sag, and an excessive sag may prevent the motor from starting successfully Motor starting sags can persist for many seconds, as illustrated in Fig 331
361 Motor-starting methods
Energizing the motor in a single step (full-voltage starting) provides low cost and allows the most rapid acceleration It is the preferred method unless the resulting voltage sag or mechanical stress is excessive Autotransformer starters have two autotransformers connected in open delta Taps provide a motor voltage of 80, 65, or 50 percent of system voltage during start-up Line current and starting torque vary with the square of the voltage applied to the motor, so the 50 percent tap will deliver only 25 percent of the full-voltage starting current and torque The lowest tap which will supply the required starting torque is selected
QC_LD2 Phase A-B Voltage RMS Variation 115 Duration 110 105 Voltage (%) 100 Ave 95 90 85 80 0 05 1 15 2 25 3 35 BMI/Electrotek Time (s)
PQNode Local Trigger
2800 s Min 8055
8813 Max 1025
Typical motor-starting voltage sag
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