.net barcode printing Overcurrent coordination principles in Software

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371 Overcurrent coordination principles
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It is important to understand the operation of the utility system during fault conditions There are certain physical limitations to interrupting the fault current and restoring power This places certain minimum requirements on loads that are expected to survive such events without disruption There are also some things that can be done better on the utility system to improve the power quality than on the load side Therefore, we will address the issues relevant to utility fault clearing with both the end user (or load equipment designer) and the utility engineer in mind There are two fundamental types of faults on power systems: 1 Transient (temporary) faults These are faults due to such things as overhead line flashovers that result in no permanent damage to the system insulation Power can be restored as soon as the fault arc is extinguished Automatic switchgear can do this within a few seconds Some transient faults are self-clearing 2 Permanent faults These are faults due to physical damage to some element of the insulation system that requires intervention by a line crew to repair The impact on the end user is an outage that lasts from several minutes to a few hours The chief objective of the utility system fault-clearing process, besides personnel safety, is to limit the damage to the distribution system Therefore, the detection of faults and the clearing of the fault current must be done with the maximum possible speed without resulting in false operations for normal transient events
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions Voltage Sags and Interruptions 83
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The two greatest concerns for damage are typically 1 Arcing damage to conductors and bushings 2 Through-fault damage to substation transformers, where the windings become displaced by excessive forces, resulting in a major failure A radial distribution system is designed so that only one fault interrupter must operate to clear a fault For permanent faults, that same device, or another, operates to sectionalize the feeder That is, the faulted section is isolated so that power may be restored to the rest of the loads served from the sound sections Orchestrating this process is referred to as the coordination of the overcurrent protection devices While this is simple in concept, some of the behaviors of the devices involved can be quite complex What is remarkable about this is that nearly all of the process is performed automatically by autonomous devices employing only local intelligence Overcurrent protection devices appear in series along a feeder For permanent fault coordination, the devices operate progressively slower as one moves from the ends of the feeders toward the substation This helps ensure the proper sectionalizing of the feeder so that only the faulted section is isolated However, this principle is often violated for temporary faults, particularly if fuse saving is employed The typical hierarchy of overcurrent protection devices on a feeder is 1 Feeder breaker in the substation This is a circuit breaker capable of interrupting typically 40 kA of current and controlled by separate relays When the available fault current is less than 20 kA, it is common to find reclosers used in this application 2 Line reclosers mounted on poles at midfeeder The simplest are selfcontained with hydraulically operated timing, interrupting, and reclosing mechanisms Others have separate electronic controls 3 Fuses on many lateral taps off the main feeder The power quality issues relating to the placement and operation of these devices are now explored
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372 Fuses
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The most basic overcurrent protective element on the system is a fuse Fuses are relatively inexpensive and maintenance-free For those reasons, they are generally used in large numbers on most utility distribution systems to protect individual transformers and feeder branches (sometimes called laterals or lateral branches) Figure 333 shows a
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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