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Common reclosing sequences for line reclosers in use in the United States
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A common reclosing sequence for substation breakers in the United States
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power quality requirements Utilities generally choose one technology over the other based on cost or construction standards It is generally fruitless to have automatic reclosers on distribution circuits with underground cable unless a significant portion of the system is overhead and exposed to trees or lightning
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374 Fuse saving
Ideally, utility engineers would like to avoid blowing fuses needlessly on transient faults because a line crew must be dispatched to change them Line reclosers were designed specifically to help save fuses Substation circuit breakers can use instantaneous ground relaying to accomplish
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 90 Three
the same thing The basic idea is to have the mechanical circuit-interrupting device operate very quickly on the first operation so that it clears before any fuses downline from it have a chance to melt When the device closes back in, power is fully restored in the majority of the cases and no human intervention is required The only inconvenience to the customer is a slight blink This is called the fast operation of the device, or the instantaneous trip If the fault is still there upon reclosing, there are two options in common usage: 1 Switch to a slow, or delayed, tripping characteristic This is frequently the only option for substation circuit breakers; they will operate only one time on the instantaneous trip This philosophy assumes that the fault is now permanent and switching to a delayed operation will give a downline fuse time to operate and clear the fault by isolating the faulted section 2 Try a second fast operation This philosophy is used where experience has shown a significant percentage of transient faults need two chances to clear while saving the fuses Some line constructions and voltage levels have a greater likelihood that a lightning-induced arc may reignite and need a second chance to clear Also, a certain percentage of tree faults will burn free if given a second shot Many utilities have abandoned fuse saving in selected areas due to complaints about power quality The fast, or instantaneous, trip is eliminated so that breakers and reclosers have only time-delayed operations (see Sec 376)
375 Reliability
The term reliability in the utility context usually refers to the amount of time end users are totally without power for an extended period of time (ie, a sustained interruption) Definitions of what constitutes a sustained interruption vary among utilities from 1 to 5 min This is what many utilities refer to as an outage Current power quality standards efforts are leaning toward calling any interruption of power for longer than 1 min a sustained interruption (see Chap 2) In any case, reliability is affected by the permanent faults on the system that must be repaired before service can be restored Of course, many industrial end users have a different view of what constitutes reliability because even momentary interruptions for transient faults can knock their processes off-line and require several hours to get back into production There is a movement to extend the traditional reliability indices to include momentary interruptions as well
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions Voltage Sags and Interruptions 91
The traditional reliability indices for utility distribution systems are defined as follows8: SAIFI: System average interruption frequency index SAIFI (no customers interrupted) (no of interruptions) total no customers
SAIDI: System average interruption duration index SAIDI (no customers affected) (duration of outage) total no customers
CAIFI: Customer average interruption frequency index CAIFI total no customer interruptions no customers affected
CAIDI: Customer average interruption duration index CAIDI customer interruption durations total no customer interruptions
ASAI: Average system availability index ASAI customer hours service availability customer hours service demand
where customer hours service demand 8760 for an entire year Typical target values for these indices are
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