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tion, some utilities began to experiment with using instantaneous reclosing while retaining the fast tripping to save fuses One utility trying this on 12-kV feeders reported that there was no significant increase in the number of breaker and recloser operations and that the number of complaints had diminished11 Therefore, it is something that other utilities might consider, with the caution that the same experience may not be achieved at higher voltage levels and with certain line designs Instantaneous reclosing has had a bad reputation with some utility engineers One risk is that there is insufficient time for the arc products to disperse and the fault will not clear Some utilities have had this experience with higher distribution voltage levels and particular line constructions When this happens, substation transformers are subjected to repeated through-faults unnecessarily This could result in increased failures of the transformers However, if there is no indication that instantaneous reclosing is causing increased breaker operations, it should be safe to use it Another concern is that very high torques will be generated in rotating machines upon reclosing This is a particular issue with distributed generation because 12 to 30 cycles may not be sufficient time to guarantee that the generator s protective relaying will detect a problem on the utility side and be off-line (see Chap 9) Reclosing intervals on feeders with DG should be at least 1 to 2 s so that there is less chance the utility will reclose into the DG out of synchronism Some utilities allow 5 s One way the utility can help prevent such an occurrence is to use a common recloser accessory that blocks reclosing when there is voltage present on the load side This may add significant cost if suitable potential transformers are not already installed
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3710 Single-phase tripping
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Most of the three-phase breakers and reclosers on the utility distribution system operate all three phases simultaneously One approach that has been suggested to minimize the exposure of customers to momentary outages is to trip only the faulted phase or phases Because many of the loads are single phase, this would automatically reduce the exposure by two-thirds for most faults The main problem with this is that it is possible to damage some three-phase loads if they are singlephased for a substantial length of time Thus, it is generally considered to be undesirable to use single-phase reclosers on three-phase branches with significant three-phase loads Of course, this is done quite commonly when only one-phase loads are being served This problem is solved by a three-phase breaker, or recloser, that is capable of operating each phase independently until it is determined that the fault is permanent Then, to prevent single-phasing of three-
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 102 Three
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phase loads, all three phases are opened if the fault is permanent and the interrupter locks out Such devices are available from distribution equipment suppliers (see Fig 337)
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3711 Current-limiting fuses
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Current-limiting fuses are often used in electrical equipment where the fault current is very high and an internal fault could result in a catastrophic failure Since they are more expensive than conventional expulsion links, their application is generally limited to locations where the fault current is in excess of 2000 to 3000 A Figure 344 shows examples of current-limiting fuses There are various designs, but the basic configuration is that of a thin ribbon element or wire wound around a form and encased in a sealed insulating tube filled with a special sand The tube is constructed of stout material such as a fiberglass-epoxy resin composite to withstand the pressures during the
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Figure 344 Various types of current-limiting fuses used in utility applications (Courtesy of Cooper Power Systems)
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