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Because the third-harmonic current is predominantly zero-sequence, it affects the ground-fault relaying There have been incidents where there have been false trips and lockout due to excessive harmonic currents in the ground-relaying circuit At least one of the events we have investigated has been correlated with capacitor switching where it is suspected that the third-harmonic current was amplified somewhat due to resonance There may be many more events that we have not heard about, and it is expected that the problem will only get worse in the future The simplest solution is to raise the ground-fault pickup level when operating procedures will allow Unfortunately, this makes fault detection less sensitive, which defeats the purpose of having ground relaying, and some utilities are restrained by standards from raising the ground trip level It has been observed that if the third harmonic could be filtered out, it might be possible to set the ground relaying to be more sensitive The third-harmonic current is almost entirely a function of load and is not a component of fault current When a fault occurs, the current seen by the relaying is predominantly sinusoidal Therefore, it is not necessary for the relaying to be able to monitor the third harmonic for fault detection The first relays were electromagnetic devices that basically responded to the effective (rms) value of the current Thus, for years, it has been common practice to design electronic relays to duplicate that response and digital relays have also generally included the significant lower harmonics In retrospect, it would have been better if the third harmonic would have been ignored for ground-fault relays There is still a valid reason for monitoring the third harmonic in phase relaying because phase relaying is used to detect overload as well as faults Overload evaluation is generally an rms function
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3714 Utility fault prevention
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One sure way to eliminate complaints about utility fault-clearing operations is to eliminate faults altogether Of course, there will always be some faults, but there are many things that can be done to dramatically reduce the incidence of faults18
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Tree trimming This is one of the more effective methods of reducing the number of faults on overhead lines It is a necessity, although the public may complain about the environmental and aesthetic impact Insulator washing Like tree trimming in wooded regions, insulator washing is necessary in coastal and dusty regions Otherwise, there will be numerous insulator flashovers for even a mild rainstorm without lightning
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Voltage Sags and Interruptions 106 Three
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Shield wires Shield wires for lightning are common for utility transmission systems They are generally not applied on distribution feeders except where lines have an unusually high incidence of lightning strikes Some utilities construct their feeders with the neutral on top, perhaps even extending the pole, to provide shielding No shielding is perfect Improving pole grounds Several utilities have reported doing this to improve the power quality with respect to faults However, we are not certain of all the reasons for doing this Perhaps, it makes the faults easier to detect If shielding is employed, this will reduce the backflashover rate If not, it would not seem that this would provide any benefit with respect to lightning unless combined with line arrester applications (see Line Arresters below) Modified conductor spacing Employing a different line spacing can sometimes increase the withstand to flashover or the susceptibility to getting trees in the line Tree wire (insulated/covered conductor) In areas where tree trimming is not practical, insulated or covered conductor can reduce the likelihood of tree-induced faults
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