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Capacitor switching is one of the most common switching events on utility systems Capacitors are used to provide reactive power (in units of vars) to correct the power factor, which reduces losses and supports the voltage on the system They are a very economical and generally trouble-free means of accomplishing these goals Alternative methods such as the use of rotating machines and electronic var compensators are much more costly or have high maintenance costs Thus, the use of capacitors on power systems is quite common and will continue to be One drawback to the use of capacitors is that they yield oscillatory transients when switched Some capacitors are energized all the time (a fixed bank), while others are switched according to load levels Various control means, including time, temperature, voltage, current, and reactive power, are used to determine when the capacitors are switched It is common for controls to combine two or more of these functions, such as temperature with voltage override
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Transient Overvoltages 112 Four
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One of the common symptoms of power quality problems related to utility capacitor switching overvoltages is that the problems appear at nearly the same time each day On distribution feeders with industrial loads, capacitors are frequently switched by time clock in anticipation of an increase in load with the beginning of the working day Common problems are adjustable-speed-drive trips and malfunctions of other electronically controlled load equipment that occur without a noticeable blinking of the lights or impact on other, more conventional loads Figure 41 shows the one-line diagram of a typical utility feeder capacitor-switching situation When the switch is closed, a transient similar to the one in Fig 42 may be observed upline from the capacitor at the monitor location In this particular case, the capacitor switch contacts close at a point near the system voltage peak This is a common occurrence for many types of switches because the insulation across the switch contacts tends to break down when the voltage across the switch is at a maximum value The voltage across the capacitor at this instant is zero Since the capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously, the system voltage at the capacitor location is briefly pulled down to zero and rises as the capacitor begins to charge toward the system voltage Because the power system source is inductive, the capacitor voltage overshoots and rings at the natural frequency of the system At the monitoring location shown, the initial change in voltage will not go completely to zero because of the impedance between the observation point and the switched capacitor However, the initial drop and subsequent ringing transient that is indicative of a capacitor-switching event will be observable to some degree The overshoot will generate a transient between 10 and 20 pu depending on system damping In this case the transient observed at the monitoring location is about 134 pu Utility capacitor-switching transients are commonly in the 13- to 14-pu range but have also been observed near the theoretical maximum The transient shown in the oscillogram propagates into the local power system and will generally pass through distribution transformers into customer load facilities by nearly the amount related to the turns ratio of the transformer If there are capacitors on the secondary system, the voltage may actually be magnified on the load side of the transformer if the natural frequencies of the systems are properly aligned (see Sec 412) While such brief transients up to 20 pu are not generally damaging to the system insulation, they can often cause misoperation of electronic power conversion devices Controllers may interpret the high voltage as a sign that there is an impending dangerous situation and subsequently disconnect the load to be safe The transient may also interfere with the gating of thyristors
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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