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20 Voltage (kV) 10 0 10 20 0 10 20 30 40 Time (ms) (a) 50 60 70
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400 Current (A) 200 0 200 400 0 10 20 30 40 Time (ms) (b) 50 60 70
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Energizing a distribution feeder: (a) voltage and (b) current
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Line energizing transients do not usually pose a problem for enduser equipment Equipment can be protected from the high-frequency components with inductive chokes and surge protective devices if necessary The example shown in Fig 415 is relatively benign and should pose few problems Cases with less load may exhibit much more oscillatory behavior Another source for overvoltages that is somewhat related to switching is the common single-line-to-ground fault On a system with high, zero-sequence impedance, the sound phase will experience a voltage rise during the fault The typical voltage rise on effectively grounded four-wire, multigrounded neutral systems is generally no more than 15 to 20 percent On systems with neutral reactors that limit the fault current, for example, the voltage rise may reach 40 to 50 percent This overvoltage is temporary and will disappear after the fault is cleared These overvoltages are not often a problem, but there are potential problems if the fault clearing is slow:
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Some secondary arresters installed by end users attempt to clamp the voltage to as low as 110 percent voltage in the perhaps mistaken belief that this offers better insulation protection Such arresters are subject to failure when conducting several cycles of power frequency current
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Adjustable-speed-drive controls may presume a failure if the dc bus voltage goes too high and trips the machine Distributed generation interconnected with the utility system will often interpret voltages in excess of 120 percent as warranting immediate disconnection (less than 10 cycles) Therefore, nuisance tripping is a likely result
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Of course, the actual impact of this overvoltage on the secondary side of the system depends heavily on the service transformer connection While the common grounded wye-wye connection will transform the voltages directly, transformers with a delta connection will help protect the load from seeing overvoltages due to these faults 42 Principles of Overvoltage Protection The fundamental principles of overvoltage protection of load equipment are 1 Limit the voltage across sensitive insulation 2 Divert the surge current away from the load 3 Block the surge current from entering the load 4 Bond grounds together at the equipment 5 Reduce, or prevent, surge current from flowing between grounds 6 Create a low-pass filter using limiting and blocking principles Figure 416 illustrates these principles, which are applied to protect from a lightning strike The main function of surge arresters and transient voltage surge suppressors (TVSSs) is to limit the voltage that can appear between two points in the circuit This is an important concept to understand One of the common misconceptions about varistors, and similar devices, is that they somehow are able to absorb the surge or divert it to ground independently of the rest of the system That may be a beneficial side effect of the arrester application if there is a suitable path for the surge current to flow into, but the foremost concern in arrester application is to place the arresters directly across the sensitive insulation that is to be protected so that the voltage seen by the insulation is limited to a safe value Surge currents, just like power currents, must obey Kirchoff s laws They must flow in a complete circuit, and they cause a voltage drop in every conductor through which they flow One of the points to which arresters, or surge suppressors, are connected is frequently the local ground, but this need not be the case
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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