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Figure 426 Synchronous closing breaker (Courtesy of ABB, Inc)
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427 Synchronous closing capacitor switch (Courtesy of Joslyn Hi-Voltage Corporation)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 428 One pole of a synchronous closing switch for distribution capacitor banks (Courtesy of Cooper Power Systems)
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tem is more expensive than a straightforward capacitor switch However, it is frequently a cost-effective solution when capacitorswitching transients are disrupting end-user loads
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For distribution feeder banks, a switched capacitor may be too close to a sensitive load or at a location where the transient overvoltages tend to be much higher Often, it may be possible to move the capacitor downline or to another branch of the circuit and eliminate the problem The strategy is to either create more damping with more resistance in the circuit or to get more impedance between the capacitor and the sensitive load The success of this strategy will depend on a number of factors Of course, if the capacitor is placed at a large load to supply reactive power specifically for that load, moving the bank may not be an option Then, techniques for soft switching or switching at noncritical times must be explored Besides utility-side solutions, one should also explore loadside solutions In some cases, it will be more cost-effective to harden load equipment against capacitor-switching transients by the application of line chokes, TVSSs, etc
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Transient Overvoltages Transient Overvoltages 145
45 Utility System Lightning Protection Many power quality problems stem from lightning Not only can the high-voltage impulses damage load equipment, but the temporary fault that follows a lightning strike to the line causes voltage sags and interruptions Here are some strategies for utilities to use to decrease the impact of lightning
451 Shielding
One of the strategies open to utilities for lines that are particularly susceptible to lightning strikes is to shield the line by installing a grounded neutral wire over the phase wires This will intercept most lightning strokes before they strike the phase wires This can help, but will not necessarily prevent line flashovers because of the possibility of backflashovers Shielding overhead utility lines is common at transmission voltage levels and in substations, but is not common on distribution lines because of the added cost of taller poles and the lower benefit due to lower flashover levels of the lines On distribution circuits, the grounded neutral wire is typically installed underneath the phase conductors to facilitate the connection of line-to-neutral connected equipment such as transformers and capacitors Shielding is not quite as simple as adding a wire and grounding it every few poles When lightning strikes the shield wire, the voltages at the top of the pole will still be extremely high and could cause backflashovers to the line This will result in a temporary fault To minimize this possibility, the path of the ground lead down the pole must be carefully chosen to maintain adequate clearance with the phase conductors Also, the grounding resistance plays an important role in the magnitude of the voltage and must be maintained as low as possible However, when it becomes obvious that a particular section of feeder is being struck frequently, it may be justifiable to retrofit that section with a shield wire to reduce the number of transient faults and to maintain a higher level of power quality Figure 429 illustrates this concept It is not uncommon for a few spans near the substation to be shielded The substation is generally shielded anyway, and this helps prevent high-current faults close to the substation that can damage the substation transformer and breakers It is also common near substations for distribution lines to be underbuilt on transmission or subtransmission structures Since the transmission is shielded, this provides shielding for the distribution as well, provided adequate clearance can be maintained for the ground lead This is not always an easy task Another section of the feeder may crest a ridge giving it unusual exposure to lightning Shielding in that area may be an effective way of
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