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near the grounded end If there is not a complete path, the voltage will build up across the load and may flash over somewhere on the secondary It is common for the meter gaps to flash over, but not always before there is damage on the secondary because the meter gaps are usually 6 to 8 kV, or higher The amount of voltage induced in the cable is dependent on the rate of rise of the current, which is dependent on other circuit parameters as well as the lightning stroke The chief power quality problems this causes are 1 The impulse entering the load can cause failure or misoperation of load equipment 2 The utility transformer will fail causing an extended power outage 3 The failing transformer may subject the load to sustained steadystate overvoltages because part of the primary winding is shorted, decreasing the transformer turns ratio Failure usually occurs in seconds but has been known to take hours The key to this problem is the amount of surge current traveling through the secondary service cable Keep in mind that the same effect occurs regardless of the direction of the current All that is required is for the current to get into the ground circuits and for a substantial portion to flow through the cable on its way to another ground Thus, lightning strikes to either the utility system or the end-user facilities have the same effects Transformer protection is more of an issue in residential services, but the secondary transients will appear in industrial systems as well
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Protecting the transformer There are two common ways for the utility
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to protect the transformer: 1 Use transformers with interlaced secondary windings 2 Apply surge arresters at the X terminals Of course, the former is a design characteristic of the transformer and cannot be changed once the transformer has been made If the transformer is a noninterlaced design, the only option is to apply arresters to the low-voltage side Note that arresters at the load service entrance will not protect the transformer In fact, they will virtually guarantee that there will be a surge current path and thereby cause additional stress on the transformer While interlaced transformers have a lower failure rate in lightningprone areas than noninterlaced transformers, recent evidence suggests that low-voltage arresters have better success in preventing failures8
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 433 shows an example of a well-protected utility pole-top distribution transformer9 The primary arrester is mounted directly on the tank with very short lead lengths With the evidence mounting that lightning surges have steeper wavefronts than previously believed, this is an ever increasing requirement for good protection practice10 It requires a special fuse in the cutout to prevent fuse damage on lightning current discharge The transformer protection is completed by using a robust secondary arrester This shows a heavy-duty, secondary arrester adapted for external mounting on transformers Internally mounted arresters are also available An arrester rating of 40-kA discharge current is recommended The voltage discharge is not extremely critical in this application but is typically 3 to 5 kV Transformer secondaries are generally assumed to have a BIL of 20 to 30 kV Gap-type arresters also work in this application but cause voltage sags, which the MOV-type arresters avoid
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Impact on load circuits Figure 434 shows a waveform of the open-cir-
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cuit voltage measured at an electrical outlet location in a laboratory mock-up of a residential service12 For a relatively small stroke to the
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Example of a distribution transformer protected against lightning with tank-mounted primary and secondary arresters (Courtesy of Cooper Power Systems)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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