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Lightning stroke current impulsive transient
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An oscillatory transient is a sudden, non power frequency change in the steady-state condition of voltage, current, or both, that includes both positive and negative polarity values An oscillatory transient consists of a voltage or current whose instantaneous value changes polarity rapidly It is described by its spectral content (predominate frequency), duration, and magnitude The spectral content subclasses defined in Table 22 are high, medium, and low frequency The frequency ranges for these classifications are chosen to coincide with common types of power system oscillatory transient phenomena Oscillatory transients with a primary frequency component greater than 500 kHz and a typical duration measured in microseconds (or several cycles of the principal frequency) are considered high-frequency transients These transients are often the result of a local system response to an impulsive transient A transient with a primary frequency component between 5 and 500 kHz with duration measured in the tens of microseconds (or several cycles of the principal frequency) is termed a medium-frequency transient Back-to-back capacitor energization results in oscillatory transient currents in the tens of kilohertz as illustrated in Fig 22 Cable switching results in oscillatory voltage transients in the same frequency range Medium-frequency transients can also be the result of a system response to an impulsive transient
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Terms and Definitions Terms and Definitions 17
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10 Time (ms)
Oscillatory transient current caused by back-to-back capacitor switching
A transient with a primary frequency component less than 5 kHz, and a duration from 03 to 50 ms, is considered a low-frequency transient This category of phenomena is frequently encountered on utility subtransmission and distribution systems and is caused by many types of events The most frequent is capacitor bank energization, which typically results in an oscillatory voltage transient with a primary frequency between 300 and 900 Hz The peak magnitude can approach 20 pu, but is typically 13 to 15 pu with a duration of between 05 and 3 cycles depending on the system damping (Fig 23) Oscillatory transients with principal frequencies less than 300 Hz can also be found on the distribution system These are generally associated with ferroresonance and transformer energization (Fig 24) Transients involving series capacitors could also fall into this category They occur when the system responds by resonating with low-frequency components in the transformer inrush current (second and third harmonic) or when unusual conditions result in ferroresonance It is also possible to categorize transients (and other disturbances) according to their mode Basically, a transient in a three-phase system with a separate neutral conductor can be either common mode or normal mode, depending on whether it appears between line or neutral and ground, or between line and neutral 24 Long-Duration Voltage Variations Long-duration variations encompass root-mean-square (rms) deviations at power frequencies for longer than 1 min ANSI C841 specifies the steady-state voltage tolerances expected on a power system A volt-
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Terms and Definitions 18 Two
20 15 10 Voltage (V pu) 05 00 05 10 15
40 Time (ms)
Low-frequency oscillatory transient caused by capacitor bank energization 345-kV bus voltage
600000 400000 200000 Voltage (V) 0
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400 Time (ms)
Low-frequency oscillatory transient caused by ferroresonance of an unloaded transformer
age variation is considered to be long duration when the ANSI limits are exceeded for greater than 1 min Long-duration variations can be either overvoltages or undervoltages Overvoltages and undervoltages generally are not the result of system faults, but are caused by load variations on the system and system switching operations Such variations are typically displayed as plots of rms voltage versus time
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