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Figure 61 PCC selection depends on where multiple customers are served (a) PCC at the transformer primary where multiple customers are served (b) PCC at the transformer secondary where multiple customers are served
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Note that when the primary of the transformer is the PCC, current measurements for verification can still be performed at the transformer secondary The measurement results should be referred to the transformer high side by the turns ratio of the transformer, and the effect of transformer connection on the zero-sequence components must be taken into account For instance, a delta-wye connected transformer will not allow zero-sequence current components to flow from the secondary to the primary system These secondary components will be trapped in the primary delta winding Therefore, zero-sequence com-
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Applied Harmonics 228 Six
ponents (which are balanced triplen harmonic components) measured on the secondary side would not be included in the evaluation for a PCC on the primary side
612 Harmonic evaluations on the utility system
Harmonic evaluations on the utility system involve procedures to determine the acceptability of the voltage distortion for all customers Should the voltage distortion exceed the recommended limits, corrective actions will be taken to reduce the distortion to a level within limits IEEE Standard 519-1992 provides guidelines for acceptable levels of voltage distortion on the utility system These are summarized in Table 61 Note that the recommended limits are specified for the maximum individual harmonic component and for the THD Note that the definition of the total harmonic distortion in Table 61 is slightly different than the conventional definition The THD value in this table is expressed as a function of the nominal system rms voltage rather than of the fundamental frequency voltage magnitude at the time of the measurement The definition used here allows the evaluation of the voltage distortion with respect to fixed limits rather than limits that fluctuate with the system voltage A similar concept is applied for the current limits There are two important components for limiting voltage distortion levels on the overall utility system: 1 Harmonic currents injected from individual end users on the system must be limited These currents propagate toward the supply source through the system impedance, creating voltage distortion Thus by limiting the amount of injected harmonic currents, the voltage distortion can be limited as well This is indeed the basic method of controlling the overall distortion levels proposed by IEEE Standard 5191992 2 The overall voltage distortion levels can be excessively high even if the harmonic current injections are within limits This condition
TABLE 61
Harmonic Voltage Distortion Limits in Percent of Nominal Fundamental Frequency Voltage Bus voltage at PCC, Vn (kV) 69 Vn 69 Vn 161 Vn 161
SOURCE:
Individual harmonic voltage distortion (%) 30 15 10
Total voltage distortion, THDV (%) n 50 25 15
IEEE Standard 519-1992, table 111
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Applied Harmonics Applied Harmonics 229
occurs primarily when one of the harmonic current frequencies is close to a system resonance frequency This can result in unacceptable voltage distortion levels at some system locations The highest voltage distortion will generally occur at a capacitor bank that participates in the resonance This location can be remote from the point of injection
Voltage limit evaluation procedure The overall procedure for utility sys-
tem harmonic evaluation is described here This procedure is applicable to both existing and planned installations Figure 62 shows a flowchart of the evaluation procedure 1 Characterization of harmonic sources Characteristics of harmonic sources on the system are best determined with measurements for existing installations These measurements should be performed at facilities suspected of having offending nonlinear loads The duration of measurements is usually at least 1 week so that all the cyclical load
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