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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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Mechanism Web interface
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Resources http://whoisianaorg http://wwwarinnet http://wwwallwhoiscom whois is supplied with most versions of UNIX http://linuxmaruhncom/sec/ fwhoishtml http://wwwipswitchcom http://previewsamspadeorg/ssw/ http://wwwsamspadeorg/ http://wwwnetscantoolscom/ nstpromainhtml http://c64org/~nr/xwhois/ http://wwwgnuorg/software/ jwhois/jwhoishtml
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Platform Any platform with a web client UNIX UNIX Windows 95/NT/2000/ XP Windows 95/NT/2000/ XP Any platform with a web client Windows 95/NT/2000/ XP UNIX with X and GTK+ GUI toolkit UNIX
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whois client fwhois client WS_Ping ProPack Sam Spade Sam Spade Web Interface Netscan tools Xwhois Jwhois
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Table 1-2
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The record creation and modification dates indicate how accurate the information is If the record was created five years ago but hasn t been updated since, it is a good bet some of the information (for example, administrative contact) may be out of date The last piece of information provides us with the authoritative DNS servers, which are the sources or records for name lookups for that domain or IP The first one listed is the primary DNS server; subsequent DNS servers will be secondary, tertiary, and so on We will need this information for our DNS interrogation, discussed later in this chapter Additionally, we can try to use the network range listed as a starting point for our network query of the ARIN database
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1:
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Public Database Security Countermeasures
Much of the information contained in the various databases discussed thus far is geared for public disclosure Administrative contacts, registered net blocks, and authoritative nameserver information is required when an organization registers a domain on the Internet However, security considerations should be employed to make the job of attackers more difficult Many times, an administrative contact will leave an organization and still be able to change the organization s domain information Therefore, first ensure that the information listed in the database is accurate Update the administrative, technical, and billing contact information as often as necessary This is best managed by setting up alerts with your domain name providers such as Verisign Consider the phone numbers and addresses listed These can be used as a starting point for a dial-in attack or for social engineering purposes Consider using a toll-free number or a number that is not in your organization s phone exchange In addition, we have seen several organizations list a fictitious administrative contact, hoping to trip up a would-be social engineer If any employee has e-mail or telephone contact with the fictitious contact, it may tip off the information security department that there is a potential problem The best suggestion is to use anonymity features offered by your domain name provider For example, both Network Solutions and Godaddycom offer private registration features where you can pay them an additional $9 or $899 per year, plus the cost of the domain, to get your actual address, phone number, e-mail, etc, not listed This is the best way to make sure your company s sensitive contact information is not pilferable on the Internet Another hazard with domain registration arises from how some registrars allow updates For example, the current Network Solutions implementation allows automated online changes to domain information Network Solutions authenticates the domain registrant s identity through the Guardian method, which uses three different types of authentication methods: the FROM field in an e-mail, a password, and a Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) key The weakest authentication method is the FROM field via e-mail The security implications of this authentication mechanism are prodigious Essentially, anyone can simply forge an e-mail address and change the information associated with your domain, better known as domain hijacking This is exactly what happened to AOL on October 16, 1998, as reported by the Washington Post Someone impersonated an AOL official and changed AOL s domain information so that all traffic was directed to autonetenet AOL recovered quickly from this incident, but it underscores the fragility of an organization s presence on the Internet It is important to choose the most secure solution available, such as a password or PGP authentication, to change domain information Moreover, the administrative or technical contact is required to establish the authentication mechanism via Contact Form from Network Solutions
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