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Dynamic linkers should ignore the LD_PRELOAD environment variable for SUID root binaries Purists may argue that shared libraries should be well written and safe for them to be specified in LD_PRELOAD In reality, programming flaws in these libraries expose the system to attack when an SUID binary is executed Moreover, shared libraries (for example, /usr/lib and /lib) should be protected with the same level of security as the most sensitive files If attackers can gain access to /usr/lib or /lib, the system is toast
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It is no secret that UNIX is a complex and highly robust operating system With this complexity, UNIX and other advanced operating systems will inevitably have some sort of programming flaws For UNIX systems, the most devastating security flaws are
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associated with the kernel itself The UNIX kernel is the core component of the operating system that enforces the overall security model of the system This model includes honoring file and directory permissions, the escalation and relinquishment of privileges from SUID files, how the system reacts to signals, and so on If a security flaw occurs in the kernel itself, the security of the entire system is in grave danger The year 2004 was full of kernel vulnerabilities for the Linux operating system over 20! Some of these vulnerabilities were simply denial of service attacks, but others such as buffer overflows, race conditions that led to privilege escalation, and integer overflows were exposed as well An example of a kernel flaw that affects millions of systems was discovered in January 2005 by Paul Starzetz and is related to almost all Linux 22x, 24x, and 26x kernels developed as of that date The vulnerability is related to the loader layer the kernel uses to execute different binary formats such as ELF and aout The kernel function sys_uselib() is called to load a library Analysis of the sys_uselib() function reveals an incorrect handling of the library s brk segment:
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[itchy]$ /elflbl [+] SLAB cleanup child 1 VMAs 454 [+] moved stack bfffe000, task_size=0xc0000000, map_base=0xbf800000 [+] vmalloc area 0xd8000000 - 0xeffe1000 Wait \ [+] race won maps=56128 expanded VMA (0xbfffc000-0xe0b0e000) [!] try to exploit 0xd8898000 [+] gate modified ( 0xffec94df 0x0804ec00 ) [+] exploited, uid=0 sh-205a# id 3id=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=10(wheel)
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The incorrect handling can be used to disrupt memory management within the kernel, and, as you can see in the preceding example, attackers who have shell access to a vulnerable system can escalate their privilege to root Furthermore, because this vulnerability allows an attacker to execute code at ring 0, attackers have the ability to break out of virtual machines such as user-mode Linux
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This vulnerability affects many Linux systems and is something that any Linux administrator should patch immediately Luckily, the fix is fairly straightforward For 22 x and 24 x kernel users, simply upgrade the kernel to version 2429rc1 or higher As of this writing, there was no official patch for the 26x kernel branch
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We have tried to discuss common vulnerabilities and methods that attackers can use to exploit these vulnerabilities and gain privileged access This list is fairly comprehensive, but attackers can compromise the security of a vulnerable system in a multitude of ways A system can be compromised because of poor configuration and administration practices A system can be extremely secure out of the box, but if the system administrator changes the permission of the /etc/passwd file to be world writable, all security goes out the window It is the human factor that will be the undoing of most systems
File and Directory Permissions
Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 8 9 7 8
UNIX s simplicity and power stem from its use of files be they binary executables, text-based configuration files, or devices Everything is a file with associated permissions If the permissions are weak out of the box, or the system administrator changes them, the security of the system can be severely affected The two biggest avenues of abuse related to SUID root files and world-writable files are discussed next Device security (/dev) is not addressed in detail in this text because of space constraints; however, it is equally important to ensure that device permissions are set correctly Attackers who can create devices or who can read or write to sensitive system resources, such as /dev/kmem or to the raw disk, will surely attain root access Some interesting proof-of-concept code was developed by Mixter and can be found at http://mixtervoidru/rawpowrc This code is not for the faint of heart because it has the potential to damage your file system It should only be run on a test system where damaging the file system is not a concern SUID Files Set user ID (SUID) and set group ID (SGID) root files kill Period! No other file on a UNIX system is subject to more abuse than an SUID root file Almost every attack previously mentioned abused a process that was running with root privileges most were SUID binaries Buffer overflow, race conditions, and symlink attacks would be virtually useless unless the program were SUID root It is unfortunate that most UNIX vendors slap on the SUID bit like it was going out of style Users who don t care about security perpetuate this mentality Many users are too lazy to take a few extra steps to accomplish a given task and would rather have every program run with root privileges To take advantage of this sorry state of security, attackers who gain user access to a system will try to identify SUID and SGID files The attackers will usually begin to find all SUID files and to create a list of files that may be useful in gaining root access Let s
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