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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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the system name located to the right In addition, each host has an HINFO record that identifies the platform or type of operating system running (see RFC 952) HINFO records are not needed, but they provide a wealth of information to attackers Because we saved the results of the zone transfer to an output file, we can easily manipulate the results with UNIX programs such as grep, sed, awk, or perl Suppose we are experts in SunOS/Solaris We could programmatically find out the IP addresses that have an HINFO record associated with Sparc, SunOS, or Solaris:
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[bash]$ grep -i solaris zone_out |wc l 388
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We can see that we have 388 potential records that reference the word Solaris Obviously, we have plenty of targets Suppose we wanted to find test systems, which happen to be a favorite choice for attackers Why Simple: they normally don t have many security features enabled, often have easily guessed passwords, and administrators tend not to notice or care who logs in to them They re a perfect home for any interloper Thus, we can search for test systems as follows:
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[bash]$ grep I test /tmp/zone_out |wc l 96
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So we have approximately 96 entries in the zone file that contain the word test This should equate to a fair number of actual test systems These are just a few simple examples Most intruders will slice and dice this data to zero in on specific system types with known vulnerabilities Keep a few points in mind First, the aforementioned method queries only one nameserver at a time This means you would have to perform the same tasks for all nameservers that are authoritative for the target domain In addition, we queried only the examplecom domain If there were subdomains, we would have to perform the same type of query for each subdomain (for example, greenhouseexamplecom) Finally, you may receive a message stating that you can t list the domain or that the query was refused This usually indicates that the server has been configured to disallow zone transfers from unauthorized users Therefore, you will not be able to perform a zone transfer from this server However, if there are multiple DNS servers, you may be able to find one that will allow zone transfers Now that we have shown you the manual method, there are plenty of tools that speed the process, including host, Sam Spade, axfr, and dig The host command comes with many flavors of UNIX Some simple ways of using host are as follows:
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host -l examplecom and host -l -v -t any examplecom
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If you need just the IP addresses to feed into a shell script, you can just cut out the IP addresses from the host command:
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host -l examplecom |cut -f 4 -d"" "" >\> /tmp/ip_out
Not all footprinting functions must be performed through UNIX commands A number of Windows products, such as Sam Spade, provide the same information The UNIX dig command is a favorite with DNS administrators and is often used to troubleshoot DNS architectures It too can perform the various DNS interrogations mentioned in this section It has too many command-line options to list here; the man page explains its features in detail Finally, you can use one of the best tools for performing zone transfers: axfr (http:// packetstormsecuritynl/groups/ADM/axfr-052targz) by Gaius This utility will recursively transfer zone information and create a compressed database of zone and host files for each domain queried In addition, you can even pass top-level domains such as com and edu to get all the domains associated with com and edu, respectively However, this is not recommended due to the vast number of domains within each of these TLDs To run axfr, you would type the following:
[bash]$ axfr examplecom axfr: Using default directory: /root/axfrdb Found 2 name servers for domain ''examplecom'': Text deleted Received XXX answers (XXX records)
To query the axfr database for the information just obtained, you would type the following:
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