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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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ith the writing of the sixth edition of this series, not much has changed when it comes to the technology aspect of those plain-old telephone system (POTS) lines, and yet many companies still have various dial-up connections into their private networks or infrastructure In this chapter, we ll show you how even an ancient 9600-baud modem can bring the Goliath of network and system security to its knees It may seem like we ve chosen to start our section on network hacking with something of an anachronism: analog dial-up hacking The advent of broadband to the home through cable modems and DSL continues to make dial-up destined for retirement, but that trip to the old folks home has yet to begin The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is still a popular and ubiquitous means of connecting with most businesses and homes Similarly, the sensational stories of Internet sites being hacked overshadow more prosaic dial-up intrusions that are in all likelihood more damaging and easier to perform In fact, we d be willing to bet that most large companies are more vulnerable through poorly inventoried modem lines than via firewall-protected Internet gateways Noted AT&T security guru Bill Cheswick once referred to a network protected by a firewall as a crunchy shell around a soft, chewy center The phrase has stuck for this reason: Why battle an inscrutable firewall when you can cut right to the target s soft, white underbelly through a poorly secured remote access server Securing dial-up connectivity is still probably one of the most important steps toward sealing up perimeter security Dial-up hacking is approached in much the same way as any other hacking: footprint, scan, enumerate, exploit With some exceptions, the entire process can be automated with traditional hacking tools called war-dialers or demon dialers Essentially, these are tools that programmatically dial large banks of phone numbers, log valid data connections (called carriers), attempt to identify the system on the other end of the phone line, and optionally attempt a logon by guessing common usernames and passphrases Manual connection to enumerated numbers is also often employed if special software or specific knowledge of the answering system is required The choice of war-dialing software is therefore a critical one for good guys or bad guys trying to find unprotected dial-up lines This chapter will first discuss two of the most popular war-dialing programs available for free on the Internet (ToneLoc and THCScan) and one commercial product: Sandstorm Enterprises PhoneSweep Unfortunately as of this edition, Secure Logix s TeleSweep Secure has been discontinued so we won t be able to discuss this product Following our discussion of specific tools, we will illustrate manual and automated exploitation techniques that may be employed against targets identified by war-dialing software, including remote PBXes and voicemail systems
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Dial-up hacking begins with the identification of a range of numbers to load into a wardialer Malicious hackers will usually start with a company name and gather a list of potential ranges from as many sources as they can think of Next, we discuss some of the mechanisms for bounding a corporate dial-up presence
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The most obvious place to start is with phone directories Many companies now sell libraries of local phone books on CD-ROM that can be used to dump into war-dialing scripts Many websites also provide a similar service as the Internet continues to become one big massive online library Once a main phone number has been identified, attackers may war-dial the entire exchange surrounding that number For example, if Acme Corp s main phone number is 555-555-1212, a war-dialing session will be set up to dial all 10,000 numbers within 555-555-XXXX Using four modems, this range can be dialed within a day or two by most war-dialing software, so granularity is not an issue Another potential tactic is to call the local telephone company and try to sweet talk corporate phone account information out of an unwary customer service rep This is a good way to learn of unpublished remote access or datacenter lines that are normally established under separate accounts with different prefixes Upon request of the account owner, many phone companies will not provide this information over the phone without a password, although they are notorious about not enforcing this rule across organizational boundaries Besides the phone book, corporate websites are fertile phone number hunting grounds Many companies caught up in the free flow of information on the Web will publish their entire phone directories on the Internet This is rarely a good idea unless a valid business reason can be closely associated with such giveaways Phone numbers can be found in more unlikely places on the Internet One of the most damaging places for information gathering has already been visited earlier in this book but deserves a revisit here The Internet name registration database found at http:// wwwarinnet will dispense primary administrative, technical, and billing contact information for a company s Internet presence via the WHOIS interface The following (sanitized) example of the output of a WHOIS search on acmecom shows the do s and don ts of publishing information with InterNIC:
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Registrant: Acme, Incorporated (ACME-DOM) Princeton Rd Hightstown, NJ 08520 US Domain Name: ACMECOM Administrative Contact: Smith, John (JS0000) jsmith@ACMECOM 555-555-5555 (FAX) 555-555-5556 Technical Contact, Zone Contact: ANS Hostmaster (AH-ORG) hostmaster@ANSNET (800)555-5555
Not only do attackers now have a possible valid exchange to start dialing, but they also have a likely candidate name (John Smith) to masquerade as to the corporate help
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