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Internetwork Routing Protocol Attack Suite (IRPAS) and Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
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Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 5 10 8 8
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CDP is a Cisco proprietary information-sharing protocol It is not routed and is only accessible to the local segment CDP shares information such as router model, software version, and IP addresses No information makes use of authentication, and it s always transferred in cleartext IRPAS is a multitool software suite by Phenoelit Unfortunately, the German Law changed in 2007 and made it illegal for people to enable hacking, so Phenoelit disbanned and publicly disclosed their removal of these tools and techniques However, they live on in US-based websites such as Packet Storm Security (http://packetstormsecurity org/UNIX/misc/irpas_010targz) CDP is a UNIX command-line tool within IRPAS FX discovered that the Cisco IOS uses the device ID to find out whether a received message is an update and whether the neighbor is already known If the device ID is too long, the test seems to fail and constantly fills up the router s memory To use CDP, specify the Ethernet interface you wish to work on (-i eth0); everything else is optional Here s an example:
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/cdp -i eth0 -n 10000 -l 1480 -r
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If attackers want to flood a router completely, they start two processes of CDP with different sizes: one of them at full size (1480) to fill up the major part of the memory, and another to fill up the rest with a length of ten octets The second mode of Phenoelit s CDP tool is spoofing Enable this mode with the command-line option -m 1 Spoofing has no actual use for attacking a router, although it can be used for social engineering or just to confuse the local administrator It is used to send out 100 percent valid CDP information packets that look like they were generated by other Cisco routers Here, you can specify any part of a CDP message yourself Here s an example:
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/cdp -v -i eth0 -m 1 -D 'Hacker' -P 'Ethernet0' -C RI \ -L 'Intel' -S "'uname -a " -F '255255255255'
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This results in the Cisco router displaying the following information:
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cisco# sh cdp neig detail ------------------------Device ID: Hacker Entry address(es):
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IP address: 255255255255 Platform: Intel, Capabilities: Router IGMP Interface: Ethernet0, Port ID (outgoing port): Ethernet0 Holdtime : 238 sec Version : Linux attack 2210 #10 Mon Feb 7 19:24:43 MET 2000 i686 unknown
CDP Countermeasures
Unless CDP is needed, it should always be disabled globally and on each interface, as shown here:
Router(config)# no cdp run Router(config-if)# no cdp enable
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Attacks
Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 4 2 8 5
To prevent broadcast storms and other unwanted side effects of looping, the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) was created and standardized as 8021d STP uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA), which senses that the switch has more than one way to communicate with a node, determines which way is best, and blocks out the other path(s) Each switch chooses which network paths it should use for each segment This information is shared between all the switches by network frames called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) A multihomed attacker on a participating STP area has the ability to fake a lower STP bridge priority than that of a current root bridge If this occurs, an attacker can assume the root bridge function and affect active STP topology, thus redirecting all the network traffic through the attacker s system Permanent STP recalculation caused by a temporary introduction and subsequent removal of STP devices with low (zero) bridge priority represents a simple form of denial of service (DoS) attack or man-in-the-middle attack Tools such as brconfig can be used to influence STP
STP Recalculation Countermeasures
To protect from this attack, enable portfast on end-node interfaces Devices behind a port with STP portfast enabled are not allowed to influence STP topology Here s an example:
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