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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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and output the WEP key Here is what you might expect to see when you execute DWEPCrack from the command line when you provide it a WEP-encrypted log of packets:
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cloud@gabriel ~$ dwepcrack -w ~/sniffed_wlan_log * dwepcrack v04 by h1kari <h1kari@dachb0dencom> * * Copyright (c) Dachb0den Labs 2002 [ht*p://dachb0dencom] * reading in captured ivs, snap headers, and samples done total packets: 723092 calculating ksa probabilities 0: 88/654 keys (!) 1: 2850/80900 keys (!) 2: 5079/187230 keys (!) 3: 5428/130824 keys (!) 4: 14002/420103 keys (!) (!) insufficient ivs, must have > 60 for each key (!) (!) probability of success for each key with (!) < 05 (!) warming up the grinder packet length: 48 init ventor: 58:f4:24 default tx key: 0 progress: wep keys successfully cracked! 0: XX:XX:XX:XX:XX * done cloud@gabriel ~$
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DWEPCrack Countermeasures
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Refer to the recommendation in the AirSnort Countermeasures section, earlier in the chapter, for details on mitigating some of the risks associated with your WLAN
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Wireless Hacking
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WEPAttack
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One of SourceForge s long time additions in the wireless security space is WEPAttack The WEPAttack tool is similar in design to the other dictionary brute-forcing engines, but with the major advantage of being able to parse in Kismet output The WEPAttack utility requires a traffic dump file to run its cracks against The Kismet suite of wireless intrusion and vulnerability tools can automatically generate this file Other methods of creation include Ethereal, Windump, and good ol tcpdump WEPAttack s usage is quite straightforward, as shown here:
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usage: wepattack -f dumpfile [-m mode] [-w wordlist] [-n network]
The following table shows WEPAttack s usage options: -f dump le -m mode The network dump le to read from Runs WEPAttack in different modes If this option is empty, all modes are executed sequentially (default): 64 WEP 64, ASCII mapping 128 WEP 128, ASCII mapping n64 WEP 64, KEYGEN function n128 WEP 128, KEYGEN function The wordlist to use; without any wordlist stdin is used The network number, which can be passed to attack only one network The default is to attack all available networks (recommended)
-w wordlist -n network
Here is an example of the WEPAttack usage for the command line:
wepattack f Kismet-Oct-21-2002-3dump w wordlisttxt
Another excellent feature of WEPAttack is that it can work in conjunction with John the Ripper John the Ripper, also known as John, is the world s most popular opensource cracking engine Binaries and the source for John can be downloaded from
Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
http://wwwopenwallcom/john John can generate a wordlist that WEPAttack could then utilize to assist in the brute-forcing Here is an example of this usage:
wepattack_word dumpfile
The WEPAttack wordlist can be downloaded from the WEPAttack team at https:// sourceforgenet/projects/wepattack This wordlist is 30MB in size
WEPAttack Countermeasures
Refer to the recommendation in the AirSnort Countermeasures section, earlier in the chapter, for details on mitigating some of the risk associated with your WLAN in particular, the encryption strength of your over-air traffic
WEP Countermeasures
WEP has inherent security issues within the protocol, implementation, and overall vendor and consumer usage Unfortunately, 80211 offers great functionality because it allows people to work without wires, so wireless technology will never go away The defensive solution is to layer security with multiple encryption and authentication schemas and to only use vendors that have addressed the IV and weak KSA WEP issue Ultimately, the best technique for securing WEP is to actually move to a stronger, more secure wireless standard such as WPA or WPA2 (the full implementation of the 80211i standard) We will discuss these options a bit later
LEAP
The Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP) wireless technology was first created and brought to market by Cisco Systems in December 2000 Cisco s LEAP is an 8021X authentication schema for wireless networks (WLANs), and by default LEAP supports strong two-way authentication and encryption LEAP is different from most other authentication systems because it utilizes a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server for the actual authentication Additionally, it utilizes a strong logon password as the encryption s shared secret key and provides dynamic per-user, per-session encryption keys Although a number of vendors support LEAP and have integrated it into their product suites, it is mainly found in Cisco wireless devices such as Aironet access points LEAP was the main protocol within the Cisco Wireless Security Suite of protocols and remains available at no additional cost and utilizes the standard 8021X framework for transmission and packet decoding
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