Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions in Software

Creation QR-Code in Software Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions

Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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Translate: f arises from an issue with WebDAV, which is implemented in IIS as an ISAPI filter called httpextdll that interprets web requests before the core IIS engine does The Translate: f header signals the WebDAV filter to handle the request, and the trailing backslash confuses the filter, so it sends the request directly to the underlying OS Windows 2000 happily returns the file to the attacker s system rather than executing it on the server This is also a good example of a canonicalization issue (discussed earlier in this chapter) Specifying one of the various equivalent forms of a canonical file name in a request may cause the request to be handled by different aspects of IIS or the operating system The previously discussed ::$DATA vulnerability in IIS is a good example of a canonicalization problem by requesting the same file by a different name, an attacker can cause the file to be returned to the browser in an inappropriate way It appears that Translate: f works similarly By confusing WebDAV and specifying false for translate, an attacker can cause the file s stream to be returned to the browser How do you prevent vulnerabilities that rely on add-ons or extensions such as Microsoft WebDAV The most effective way is patching or disabling the vulnerable extension (preferably both) In general, you should configure your web server to enable only the functionality required by your web application
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As we ve noted throughout this book, the dreaded buffer overflow attack symbolizes the coup de grace of hacking Given the appropriate conditions, buffer overflows often result in the ability to execute arbitrary commands on the victim machine, typically with very high privilege levels Buffer overflows have been a chink in the armor of digital security for many years Ever since Dr Mudge s discussion of the subject in his 1995 paper How to Write Buffer Overflows (http://wwwinsecureorg/stf/mudge_buffer_overflow_tutorialhtml), the world of computer security has never been the same Aleph One s 1996 article Smashing the Stack for Fun and Profit, originally published in Phrack Magazine, Volume 49 (http:// wwwphrackcom), is also a classic paper detailing how simple the process is for overflowing a buffer A great site for these references is located at http://destroynet/ machines/security The easiest overflows to exploit are termed stack-based buffer overruns, denoting the placement of arbitrary code in the CPU execution stack More recently, so-called heap-based buffer overflows have also become popular, where code is injected into the heap and executed NOTE See 10 for more in-depth coverage of buffer overflows, including more recent variants such as heap overflows and integer overruns Web server software is no different from any other, and it, too, is potentially vulnerable to the common programming mistakes that are the root cause of buffer overflows Unfortunately, because of its position on the front lines of most networks, buffer overflows in web server software can be truly devastating, allowing attackers to leapfrog from a simple edge compromise into the heart of an organization with ease Therefore, we
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recommend paying particular attention to the attacks in this section because they are the ones to avoid at any cost We could go on describing buffer overflows in web server platforms for many pages, but to save eyestrain, we ll synopsize a few of the most serious here The IIS ASP Stack Overflow vulnerability affects Microsoft IIS 50, 51, and 60 It allows an attacker who can place files on the web server to execute arbitrary machine code in the context of the web server software An exploit has been published for this vulnerability at http://downloadssecurityfocuscom/vulnerabilities/exploits/ cocoruderIIS-jul25-2006c The IIS HTR Chunked Encoding Transfer Heap Overflow vulnerability affects Microsoft IIS 40, 50, and 51 It potentially leads to remote denial of service or remote code execution at the IWAM_MACHINENAME privilege level An exploit has been published for this vulnerability at http://packetstormsecuritynl/0204-exploits/iischeckpl IIS also suffered from buffer overflows in the add-on Indexing Service extension (idq dll), which could be exploited by sending ida or idq requests to a vulnerable server This vulnerability resulted in the infamous Code Red worm (see http://www securityfocuscom/bid/2880) Other oldie but goodie IIS buffer overflows include the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) vulnerability (see http://wwweeyecom/html/ research/advisories/AD20010501html) and one of the first serious buffer overflow vulnerabilities identified in a commercial web server, IISHack (see http://wwweeye com/html/research/advisories/AD20001003html) Like many Windows services, IIS was also affected by the vulnerabilities in the ASN1 protocol library (see http://research eeyecom/html/advisories/published/AD20040210-2html) Not to be outdone, open-source web platforms have also suffered from some severe buffer overflow vulnerabilities The Apache mod_rewrite vulnerability affects all versions up to and including Apache 220 and results in remote code execution in the web server context Details and several published exploits can be found at http://wwwsecurityfocus com/bid/19204 The Apache mod_ssl vulnerability (also known as the Slapper worm) affects all versions up to and including Apache 2040 and results in remote code execution at the super-user level Several published exploits for both Windows and Linux platforms can be found at http://packetstormsecuritynl, and the CERT advisory can be found at http://wwwcertorg/advisories/CA-2002-27html Apache also suffered from a vulnerability in the way it handled HTTP requests encoded with chunked encoding that resulted in a worm dubbed Scalper, which is thought to be the first Apache worm The Apache Foundation s security bulletin can be found at http://httpdapacheorg/info/ security_bulletin_20020620txt Typically, the easiest way to counter buffer overflow vulnerabilities is to apply a software patch, preferably from a reliable source Next, we ll discuss some ways to identify known web server vulnerabilities using available tools
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