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In the preceding example, nmap provides the decoy scan capabilities to make it more difficult to discern legitimate port scans from bogus ones Another useful scanning feature is ident scanning ident (see RFC 1413 at http:// wwwietforg/rfc/rfc1413txt) is used to determine the identity of a user of a particular TCP connection by communicating with port 113 Many versions of ident will actually respond with the owner of the process that is bound to that particular port However, this is most useful against a UNIX target Here s an example:
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Notice that in the preceding example we can actually determine the owner of each process The astute reader may have noticed that the web server is running as root instead of as an unprivileged user such as nobody This is a very poor security practice Thus, by performing an ident scan, we know that if the HTTP service were to be compromised by allowing an unauthorized user to execute commands, the attacker would be rewarded with instant root access The final scanning technique discussed is FTP bounce scanning The FTP bounce attack was thrust into the spotlight by Hobbit in his posting to Bugtraq in 1995, where he outlines some of the inherent flaws in the FTP protocol (see RFC 959 at http://wwwietf org/rfc/rfc0959txt) Although dreadfully old school, arcane, and virtually unusable on the Internet today, the FTP bounce attack demonstrates an insidious method of laundering connections through an FTP server by abusing the support for proxy FTP connections The technique, while outdated, is important to understand if you wish to truly understand the scope a hacker will take to get to its target As Hobbit points out in the aforementioned post, FTP bounce attacks can be used to post virtually untraceable mail and news, hammer on servers at various sites, fill up disks, try to hop firewalls, and generally be annoying and hard to track down at the same time Moreover, you can bounce port scans off the FTP server to hide your identity, or better yet, bypass access control mechanisms Of course, nmap supports this type of scan with the b option; however, a few conditions must be present First, the FTP server must have a writable and readable directory such as /incoming Second, the FTP server must allow nmap to feed bogus port information to it via the PORT command Although this technique is very effective in bypassing access control devices as well as hiding one s identity, it can be a very slow process Additionally, many new versions of the FTP server do not allow this type of nefarious activity to take place Now that we have demonstrated the requisite tools to perform port scanning, it is necessary for you to understand how to analyze the data that is received from each tool Regardless of the tool used, we are trying to identify open ports that provide telltale signs of the operating system For example, when ports 445, 139, and 135 are open, a high probability exists that the target operating system is Windows Windows 2000 and later normally listens on port 135 and port 139 This differs from Windows 95/98, which only listen on port 139 Reviewing the strobe output further (from earlier in the chapter), we can see many services running on this system If we were to make an educated guess, this system seems to be running some flavor of UNIX We arrived at this conclusion because the portmapper (111), Berkeley R services ports (512 514), NFS (2049), and high-number
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ports (3277X and above) were all listening The existence of such ports normally indicates that this system is running UNIX Moreover, if we had to guess the flavor of UNIX, we would guess Solaris We know in advance that Solaris normally runs its RPC services in the range of 3277X Just remember that we are making assumptions and that the type could potentially be something other than Solaris By performing a simple TCP and UDP port scan, we can make quick assumptions on the exposure of the systems we are targeting For example, if port 445 or 139 or 135 is open on a Windows server, it may be exposed to a great deal of risk due to the numerous remote vulnerabilities present on the services running on those ports 4 discusses the inherent vulnerabilities with Windows and how port 445, 139, and 135 access can be used to compromise the security of systems that do not take adequate security measures to protect access to these ports In our example, the UNIX system appears to be at risk as well, because the services listening provide a great deal of functionality and have been known to have many security-related vulnerabilities For example, Remote Procedure Call (RPC) services and the Network File System (NFS) service are two major ways in which an attacker may be able to compromise the security of a UNIX server (see 5) Conversely, it is virtually impossible to compromise the security of a remote service if it is not listening Therefore, it is important to remember that the greater the number of services running, the greater the likelihood of a system compromise
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