Hacking the Internet User in Software

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a rootkit when you can t even trust the dir or netstat commands! The subsequent techniques mostly rely on this important rst step File/directory hiding Many popular rootkits chain or detour the Windows API call ZwQuerySystemInformation to achieve this (for example, Hoglund s NT Rootkit would hide any le on the le system pre xed with _root_ ) Some also use Alternate Data Streams (ADS), a feature of the Windows NT Family operating system originally used to support Macintosh le system compatibility, but now also used by XP SP2 to hold information about the security zone from which a le has been downloaded (previous editions of Hacking Exposed illustrated the use of ADS to hide les, and such techniques are widely published on the Internet now) Flagging les so that Windows identi es them as bad blocks is also popular Rootkits commonly also employ encryption or compression ( packers ) on their payloads to avoid antivirus scans More recently, rootkit researchers are speculating about storing information in writable computer chips like the graphic processors used by most PCs this would provide the ultimate hiding place for malicious code outside of the hard drive where most detection tools currently look Process hiding Because processes are necessary to do work on Windows, a good rootkit must nd a way to hide them Most commonly, rootkits hide a process by delinking it from the active process list, which prevents common APIs from seeing it Many rootkits also create threads, which are subcomponents of a process By creating threads hidden within processes, it becomes more dif cult for users to identify running programs Port hiding To hide the backdoor component that allows remote control via a network, rootkits commonly attempt to hide the network ports on which they listen, whether they be TCP or UDP The popular rootkit kit Hacker Defender hooks every process on the system and thus can avoid easy identi cation using investigative techniques such as netstat Hacker Defender uses a 256-bit key to authenticate commands to these ports Other rootkits, including cd00r and SAdoor, adopt techniques such as port knocking (http://wwwportknocking org) to achieve a similar capability Registry key/value hiding This is generally not too hard, because the size and complexity of the Registry makes hiding things quite easy simply by naming them something that looks at once harmless and critical to the stability of the system (for example, HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\ Run\ rewall-serviceexe) And, of course, once the kernel is hooked, keys and values can simply be hidden from prying eyes altogether User/group hiding Typically, this is achieved by setting permissions on the user or group object so that most other system users cannot read them Again, with kernel residence, operating system access tokens can simply be changed to re ect whatever the attacker wants and only the SYSTEM user is implicated in the logs
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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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Service hiding Rootkits commonly load components as Windows services, which makes them less accessible to novice users Keystroke loggers Typically these are custom programs that capture submitted form data as a Browser Helper Object (BHO) in Internet Explorer, Win32-based keystroke loggers that are injected into the Windows logon process, or software shims placed directly at the keyboard hardware level (so-called trapping an interrupt ) Multiple techniques may be employed to provide redundant reinfection vectors if one or more are discovered Next, we will examine some of the most popular rootkits to see how they implement some of these techniques
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One of the most widely utilized rootkits is Hacker Defender, based on personal communications from colleagues who perform forensic analyses following computer security incidents at organizations large and small Hacker Defender is frequently referred to by its slang name, hxdef, and more is revealed here: http://wwwmegasecurity org/trojans/h/hackerdefender/Hackerdefender100html The primary technique utilized by Hacker Defender is to use the Windows API functions WriteProcessMemory and CreateRemoteThread to create a new thread within all running processes The function of this thread is to alter the Windows kernel (kernel32dll) by patching it in memory to rewrite information returned by API calls to hide hxdef s presence hxdef also installs hidden back doors, registers as a hidden system service, and installs a hidden system driver, probably to provide redundant reinfection vectors if one or more are discovered hxdef s popularity probably relates to its ease of use combined with powerful functionality (ironically similar to its host system, Windows) Its INI file is easy to understand, and it binds to every listening port to listen for incoming commands, as we noted earlier in our discussion of port hiding You have to use the hxdef backdoor client to connect to the backdoored port, as shown next:
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Host: localhost Port: 80 Pass: hxdef-rules connecting server receiving banner opening backdoor backdoor found checking backdoor backdoor ready authorization sent, waiting for reply authorization SUCCESSFUL backdoor activated!
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