Hacking the Internet User in Software

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Hacking the Internet User
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close shell and all progz to end session Microsoft Windows XP [Version 512600] (C) Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp C:\WINNT\system32>
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Note that we ve used the default password to connect to the backdoor thread on port 80, which is commonly used to host a web server (and thus passes through standard firewall configurations) We ll talk about finding and cleaning hxdef in the upcoming section titled Detecting and Cleaning Malware If you want to get a head start, hxdef s own readme file gives plenty of good pointers on how to detect and delete it
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Other Common Rootkits
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Besides Hacker Defender, other rootkits are frequently found on compromised systems These include the fuzen_op, or FU Rootkit, Vanquish, and AFX Like hxdef, FU consists of two components: a user-mode dropper (fuexe) and a kernel-mode driver (msdirectxsys) The dropper is a console application that allows certain parameters of the rootkit to be modified by the attacker The driver performs the standard unlinking of the attacker-defined process from the standard process list to hide it from users Again, once installed in the kernel, it s curtains for the victim system Vanquish is a DLL injection-based Romanian rootkit that hides files, folders, and Registry entries and logs passwords It is composed of the files vanquishexe and vanquishdll DLL injection is a technique we discussed in 4 on Windows hacking It first gained notoriety circa NT4 with the getadmin exploit DLL injection is similar to hooking kernel-mode API calls, except that it injects malicious code into a privileged kernel-mode process to achieve the same ends Microsoft has sought to limit its exposure to DLL injection, for example by causing the operating system to shut down when the integrity of privileged processes is violated by DLL injection attempts The AFX Rootkit by Aphex (see http://wwwmegasecurityorg/trojans/a/aphex/ Afx_win_rootkit2003html) attempts to simplify rootkit deployment AFX is composed of two files, iexploredll and explorerdll, which it names iexploreexe and explorerexe and copies to the system folder Anything executed from its root folder will be hidden in several dynamic ways Shifting the techniques used to hide components makes AFX more difficult to detect by tools that detect only one or two hiding techniques AFX is also interesting for its easy-to-use graphical user interface for generating customized rootkits
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Bots and Zombies
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Now that you ve seen how easy it is to hide things from unsophisticated users, let s take a look at what sorts of nefarious activities malicious software engages in If your machine becomes infected via one of the common mechanisms we ve outlined so far (for example,
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Hacking Exposed 6: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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a software vulnerability, IE misconfiguration, or opening an e-mail attachment), your system may wind up hosting a bot, which will turn it into a zombie in a larger army of mindless computers under the control of a remote attacker Although we prefer the term drone or agent, bot is derived from robot and has traditionally referred to a program that performs predefined actions in an automated fashion on unmonitored Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channels The connection with IRC is important, because the primary mechanism for controlling most malicious bots today is IRC Zombie simply refers to a machine that has been infected with a bot What would anyone want to do with an army of PCs hooked up to the Internet To leverage the potentially massive power of thousands of computers harnessed together, of course Typically, abuse falls into the following categories: Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks As you can see in Appendix C, DDoS is challenging to mitigate, and it s therefore an effective tool for extortion or brand assassination Spam Ongoing efforts have closed down most of the unsecured e-mail relays on the Internet today, but this seems not to have dented the massive volume of spam owing into inboxes worldwide Ever wonder why Spammers are buying access to zombies who run e-mail gateways Even better, this sort of distributed spamming is more dif cult to block by mail servers that key on high volumes of mail from a single source with zombies, you dribble out a low volume of mail from thousands of sources Laundered connections and hosting This reduces the need to assiduously cover ones tracks on the Internet when you simply masquerade as someone else s PC Harvest valuable information This includes online banking credentials, software activation license keys, and so on Secondary infection Scanning and enlisting more zombies, of course, increases the aggregate strength of the army If there is any greater indication of the value inherent in these bot networks/zombie armies, it is that they have now achieved economic value Yes, these networks (some numbering in the tens of thousands) are now bought and sold by the CPU cycle to anyone willing to pay for their use in DDoS, spamming, and the like Some of history s most popular bots include Agobot, AttackBot, SubSeven, EvilBot, SlackBot, GT (Global Threat) Bot, Litmus Bot, and Socket Clone Bots such as Judgment Day We re not going to spend any time describing these in more detail because we ve already covered the most significant features of such programs (if you want, search for their names using any Internet search engine and you ll get plenty of data) Most of these bugs aren t very innovative, and they reuse common techniques from other malware like viruses and worms to perform their evil bidding Let s instead move on, at last, to a discussion of finding and cleaning malware of all types
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